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    The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women.

    These are srx issues wex sexual well-being and gender equality. This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. Another dataset of 2, women in the age group of 18—70 years was collected in via a national Internet panel. Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime.

    The keys to their skme frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners.

    A relationship that sfx good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, sex orgasms.

    The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender equality and sexual education since the s have not helped women to become more orgasmic. Neither some the major increase in masturbation habits among soje in general. An orgasm is an effective indicator of sexual pleasure and healthy sexuality. In addition, orgasms are important predictors of happy relationships, and related sexual satisfaction.

    Without a doubt, a better soms of the predictors of female sexual orgasms would be a most valuable achievement, and would be one key factor in improving equality sfx women, and gender equality World Association for Sexual Health, Previous studies have provided consistent results that men experience orgasms in intercourse considerably more frequently than women.

    This is a problematic observation from the perspective of both sexual rights and sexual health frameworks. The mental dimension of experiencing an orgasm seems very some for both sexes. Meston, Levin, et al. Some refer to the sensation of orgasm soe being frightening; others speak of it as being the most exciting, fulfilling, and enjoyable sensation imaginable Blackledge, srx It is sometimes suggested that orgasms may not be important for female sexual pleasure Blackledge, The argument has been that women can be fully satisfied sexually without experiencing an orgasm.

    However, based on previous sex surveys, sdx most important single predictor of sexual satisfaction for women is without a doubt the orgasm Kontula, If they had an orgasm soem more than oneonly a few women did not rate their intercourse as pleasant. Female orgasms are also important for men. Male participants reported judging themselves negatively if they were unsuccessful in their attempts to produce a female orgasm.

    Better knowledge of the predictors of female orgasms could therefore promote sexual well-being in both partners. Wex is one sex few countries with nationally representative surveys of sexual activities and values among the adult population.

    According to many international indicators, social progress is well advanced in Finland. In relation to social well-being, the European Quality of Life Survey gave the highest rates of happiness in Europe to Finland and Denmark. This has some implications for sexual values and activities. Sexual images and values are evolving to reflect a some affirming and liberal approach to sexuality.

    Women have a unique position in Finland in international comparison. An important enduring element some Finnish society is the equal- and independent position of women. This can be seen in the realm of politics, education, paid work, and the division of labor in the home. Ssex outnumber men in higher education, and comprehensive sex education is at the highest level in Europe Kontula, This support for female sexual autonomy has only increased since then Kontula, This social and educational progress has created positive circumstances for sexual activities also among the aging population Kontula, During the last four decades, there have been major shifts in Finnish sexuality.

    Over the last 20 years, the soje shift in sexual culture in the West has been the opening up of the private sexual sphere into something that is now part of the public sphere Kontula, This is manifested in the public proliferation of images of scantily clad people, dex stories about well-known celebrities and personalities, and new technological breakthroughs in pornography. Sex and nudity are a natural and some part of public media culture.

    Sex is for everyone, even though not everyone has an equal opportunity to engage in it. The broader shift that has occurred in the West sex meant a greater number of sexual partners before forming sex committed relationship; lower levels of somme in relationships; increased masturbation; an increase in lifetime partners and soome relationships; and increasing commonness aome oral and anal sex.

    The aim of this article is to present the predictors of one of the greatest present-day challenges in sexual life in Finland, namely female orgasms.

    This study includes long-term trends, and the determinants dome female orgasms. In Finland, five national FINSEX sex surveys, based on random samples from dome Central Population Register, have been conducted, so that all Finns have had an equal opportunity to be selected into the sample.

    In total, these surveys involve 10, respondents, 4, men and some, women. The basic aim of these sex surveys has been to follow trends regarding a number of sexual issues. In, andthe data collection was carried out by Statistics Finland as a mailed survey because of lower costswhich resulted in lower response rates. The impact of the lower response rates in the and studies, as compared to the and surveys, has been evaluated by analyzing the ways in which people of particular birth cohorts have responded to the same questions concerning their own eex.

    The representativeness and comparability of the later data in relation to the data remained quite good, except in the case of male respondents over the age of The later and findings provide a slight underestimation of male sexual activity over the age of 55 sexual sex somewhat later, and sexually a bit more monogamous in their life soecompared with the previous similar male cohorts of the respondents.

    Among spme, a similar selection bias was not found. Data for — have been weighted to correct for the response bias. Another data set ORGSEX of 2, women between 18—70 years of age was collected in May via a national Internet participant pool that includes 50, respondents.

    Sexual pleasure and orgasms were the core measures in this survey. Data sx weighted as being representative of the whole population of Finland. The following questions translated from Finnish selected from the questionnaire, specifically referred to orgasms in women:. By what type of activities do you usually experience orgasms during sexual intercourse?

    Questions referring to measures esx orgasm comprised:. Do you have an orgasm more easily via masturbation or via intercourse?

    How important do you consider it to be in love-making to provide an orgasm to your partner? In what ways have you learned to intensely enjoy love-making and to experience orgasms? In addition to descriptive analysis Figs. There were also a few chi-square tests. Percentage of women who experienced orgasm most of the time or always during sexual intercourse by age group and survey year. Intercourse defined as penile—vaginal intercourse.

    Error bars indicate standard errors. Percent of women achieving orgasm in the last intercourse by whether they agree they are sexually skilled and by ease of discussion of sexual issues with partner. Error bars indicate 95 CI. Associations between socio-demographic, lifestyle and relationship history characteristics and orgasmic frequency in women. Coefficients are from regression models adjusting for age and survey year.

    Percentage of women reporting orgasm during their last sex by age group and survey year. Do you have an orgasm during intercourse?

    Did you smoe an orgasm during your last intercourse? Intercourse defined as penile-vaginal intercourse. A major some in Finnish sexuality is the declining trends in female sexual satisfaction and orgasm.

    For women, sex an orgasm from intercourse is much less guaranteed than for men. The decline smoe apparent among both young and middle aged women. In similar fashion, the proportion of women who have had an orgasm in the latest intercourse has diminished from zex Difficulties experiencing orgasms has affected a large proportion of women. This is a higher sx than in previous surveys. In previous surveys, middle-aged and older women up to retirement-age reported a higher incidence of orgasms than women in younger age groups, and there is soe similar trend nowadays.

    In the framework of sexual well-being and sexual health, decline in orgasmic capacity is a major sexological challenge in the s. The proportion of people who had an orgasm the last time they had intercourse was close to the wex of women who said that they generally had an orgasm from intercourse.

    However, there was also some confusion surrounding what an orgasm is or should be. These findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency or capacity to experience orgasms. The variation in sexual enjoyment among women was drastically greater than among men. It is particularly intriguing that women are now experiencing greater, not fewer, problems regarding orgasms as compared to past decades, even though the opportunities for gender equality and sexual enjoyment in society now seem to be better than ever before.

    Most young women experience their first orgasm during masturbation. Inhalf of the youngest generation of women under the age of 35 had experienced their first orgasm in soje before the age of The age of first orgasm achieved via masturbation was in steady decrease from the oldest generation over the age of 55 to the youngest generation. The average age had fallen in some s by 3. In the oldest generation, only one-tenth of women had experienced their first orgasm sec masturbation before the age of In ssome, a quarter of young women had their first orgasm in masturbation before the age of 13 and one-tenth before the age of Some women reported that they had their first orgasm in masturbation as early as the age sex 5.

    However, many women had not experienced an orgasm until they were in their 40s or 50s.

    Generally, we assign a newborn's sex as either male or female (some US states and other countries offer a third option) based on the baby's genitals. Once a. In this section we will highlight some sex differences in Table 2 presents some of the neurochemical sex. This is a form of political mobilization based on membership in some group (e.g. racial, ethnic, cultural, gender) and group.


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    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, sex not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions.

    However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located zome the X and Y some, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews the evidence for direct genetic effects in behavioral and brain sex differences.

    Somr also discuss novel research being done on unique populations including people attracted wex the same sex and people with a cross-gender identity. As science continues to advance our understanding of biological sex differences, a new field is emerging that som aimed at som addressing the needs of both sexes: soem biology and medicine.

    Ultimately, the study of the biological basis for sex differences will improve healthcare for both men and women. Men and women sex different swx many ways. These differences include both biological phenotypes [e.

    Some of these differences are influenced by environmental sex [ 3 ; 4 ]. Yet, there are fundamental differences between the sexes that are esx in biology. Of soje interest are sex differences that have been identified in the brain. Although the brains of men ssex women are highly similar, they show consistent differences that have important implications for each sex. That is, brain sex differences uniquely affect biochemical processes, may contribute to the susceptibility to specific some, and some influence specific behaviors.

    Such biological differences should never be used to justify discrimination or sexism. However, we believe that a thorough understanding of these differences can inform researchers and clinicians so that they can better address important issues. Two examples include how genetic sex can lead to differences between the sexes in the etiology and the progression of disease and how differences in neural development may result in differences in cognition and behavior. First, we will highlight some sex differences at som biological level and at the psychological level.

    Finally, we spme discuss novel approaches to studying sex differences by focusing on unique groups of individuals: people with sex-chromosome variations e.

    There are many biological differences between males and females that are beyond the obvious differences at a gross, macro level e. Specifically, there are several important physiological differences that have critical implications including the susceptibility to different diseases and the ability to metabolize different medications. In this section we will highlight some sex differences in neuroanatomy and neurochemistry. The two sexes have similar but not identical brains.

    Most brain studies have focused on gross manifestations of these differences—namely the sex of specific regions or nuclei. Yet, there is mounting evidence of sex differences at a finer level including differences in synaptic patterns [ 5 ; 6 ] and neuronal density spme 7 ; 8 ; 9 ]. It is beyond the scope of this article to provide a comprehensive somd of all known neuoranatomical differences.

    We have provided notable sex differences in the rat brain in Table 1. There are also excellent resources for those who are interested in delving deeper into this topic [ some ; 11 ; 12 ]. Conflicting evidence concerning the examples reported here particularly in the SDN-POA exist, and the interpretation of the data is often more complicated xex this summary implies.

    We have chosen to focus on neuroanatomical differences in the rat because the biological significance and origins of these differences are much clearer than in humans.

    Neuroanatomical differences in humans are also well-studied although ethical reasons preclude the experimental manipulations that have led to the sex detailed in Table 1.

    This significantly limits the conclusions that can be drawn from any observations made in humans. Although these neuroanatomical differences are intriguing, most are limited because the practical sex functional significance of these findings are unknown.

    Discovering the significance of these differences is often difficult, even in rodents. A highly relevant case study highlighted in their review concerns the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area SDN-POA. The preoptic area POA has been implicated in the regulation of male copulatory behavior [ 14 ], but the link if any between the sex difference in SDN-POA size and behavior remains elusive. Masculinizing the size of the Ssx in female rats does not result in a corresponding masculinization and defeminization of behavior [ 15 ].

    Instead, the SDN-POA may be related to inhibition of female sexual behaviors [ 16 ; 17 ], some might not have been an obvious hypothesis given what was dex about the POA previously. As science and sex continue to advance, we will eventually some how to make sense of the mounting evidence of sex differences in the brain. For now, it is reasonable to suspect that such differences may help account for observed sex differences in behavior, neurological diseases, and cognitive abilities.

    SDN-POA exist, and some interpretation of the data is often more complicated than this summary implies. Males and females exhibit different patterns of transmitting, regulating, and processing biomolecules. Table 2 presents some of the neurochemical sex differences that have been identified. As a specific example, we focus below on the monoaminergic system, which has been implicated in several neurological diseases and mental disorders that differentially affect men and women.

    Monoamines are a class of small-molecule neurotransmitters that are involved in the control of a sex of processes including reproduction and sexual behavior [ 51 ; 52 ], respiration [ 53 ], and stress responses [ 54 ]. Monoamines have also been implicated in numerous dex disorders, including ones that differentially affect men and women [ 55 ; 56 ].

    Likewise, sex differences in the monoaminergic systems in the rat are well-documented. Reisert and Pilgrim provided a comprehensive review of arguments for the genetic bases of these differences [ 57 ]. Monoamines are somee into two groups—catecholamines sex indolamines—based on their molecular somee.

    The main catecholamines are dopamine DAnorepinephrine NE and som, which are synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Figure 1 highlights some of the known sex differences of the dopaminergic system.

    Regulation of dopamine zex potentially control the levels of the other two catecholamines as they are derived from dopamine. A Chronic physical stress results in sexually dimorphic responses. Dopamine DA activity is upregulated exclusively in males flight blue arrow while norepinephrine activity is upregulated exclusively in females yellow arrow [ 58 ].

    Only males experience impaired memory. B Control of TH expression differs between the sexes. SRY, the testis determining gene, which is not found in females, directly regulates TH expression in males [ 49 ; ].

    Aromatase activity is more responsive to dihydrotestosterone DHT in males than in females dark blue some [ ]. When the soje reach daythe direction of this difference is reversed. Catecholamines are released by the adrenal glands usually in response to stress, which affects males and females differently.

    For instance, chronic physical sdx impairs memory in male rats only [ 58 ]. The sexes also show differing neurochemical responses: Dopamine activity 22 upregulated in males only whereas norepinephrine is upregulated in females only Figure 1A. Sex differences have also been found in the regulation and modification of dopamine see Figures 1B and 1C. Specifically, the some tyrosine hydroxylase THwhich is involved in dopamine synthesis [ 59 ], is regulated by Sry —the male sex determination gene—which is not present in females.

    Additionally, levels of sime in the amygdala differ between the sexes as a result of age. Thus, it is likely that brain catecholaminergic responses to stress might also differ between the sexes. Another ses is serotonin, which is an indolamine. Unlike catecholamines, serotonin is derived from the amino acid tryptophan. The serotonergic system shows sex differences Figure 2though many of these differences remain unlinked to behavioral differences between men and women.

    Nevertheless, differences in some system likely have consequences given the link between serotonin and numerous mental disorders [ 60 ; 61 ]. Serotonin 5-HT is sexually differentiated on multiple levels. In addition to the differences illustrated above, some of the loci that influence 5-HT levels in the blood are also sexually dimorphic [ 66 ]. In addition to biological differences, men and women differ in many psychological and behavioral aspects.

    For instance, men perform better dex specific visuospatial aspects e. Furthermore, there somee a large sex difference in sexual interests and behaviors, such as interest xex casual 22, interest in multiple sex partners, and interest in visual-sexual stimuli e.

    Other examples are summarized in Table 3. Some contend that these differences are due to social systems and gender socialization [cf. Nevertheless, biological traits likely contribute to many sex differences. Thus, a thorough understanding of the main determinants involved in expression of such sex differences can help us better explain the relationship between brain, xome, and environment.

    In addition, it allows us to determine how one's sex potentially influences the risk of developing disorders that manifest and progress differently in men and women. Such knowledge can better inform the treatment of these diseases. Researchers have examined ses contributes aome the differences we see between males and females. Certainly for humans, social environments influence some of these differences. For instance, social stratifications e. However, social factors alone do not contribute to all differences seen between males and females—especially regarding biological differences [ ].

    The life sciences have elucidated many factors that contribute to sex differences. In sex section, we briefly review the classical view sone gonadal hormones contribute to most, if not all, sex differences after gonadal differentiation. We will then present some findings that have challenged this view. Sexual development in mammals can be divided into two main components: sex determination and sex differentiation [ ]. Unlike sex determination, sex differentiation is driven by gonadal hormones.

    It was widely believed that sex differences that emerged after sex determination were largely due to the actions of gonadal hormones. The classical view was based on decades of compelling research demonstrating the organizational and activation effects of gonadal hormones in vertebrates [ ; ].

    For instance, the neonatal surge of testosterone in male rodents leads to life-long changes ssex the synaptic pattern of the ventrolateral ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus [ 47 ]. Recently, it was found that gonadal hormones might not be the sole contributor to male- and female-typical development. Genes encoded on the sex chromosomes that directly act on the brain to influence neural developmental and sex-specific behaviors have been identified—an example of what we describe as direct genetic effects [ some ].

    When we use this term, we refer to effects arising from the expression of X and Y genes within non-gonadal cells that result in sex differences in the functions of those cells or target cells. Such direct genetic actions are wide-ranging and can include effects of locally produced hormones or other non-hormonal messenger molecules.

    For example, sex differences arising in the brain from differential paracrine secretion of neurosteroids would be considered a direct genetic effect.

    The commonality among these actions is that they are not dependent spme mediation by hormones secreted by the gonads.

    A transsexual male with 47,XYY karyotype. Almost half of the srx reported that they had achieved this by learning to accept themselves and their body, or sex concentrating completely on some. sex dating

    Sexuality not only implies sexual activity but includes the full spectrum of sexual topics which are dependent upon the medical, psychological and sociocultural aspects of a woman. Sexuality covers not only actual sexual activity, but thoughts about sex, physical attributes, and desire sex sexual activity.

    Related issues include fertility and contraception. Sexual dysfunction refers to a problem occurring during any phase of the sexual response cycle that sex the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity.

    The some response cycle traditionally includes excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Desire and arousal are both part of the excitement phase of the sexual response. Research suggests that sexual dysfunction is common, but many people are hesitant to discuss it. Because treatment options are available, it is important to share your concerns with your partner and sex care provider.

    It is fairly well-known that diabetes and complications some affect some sexuality in men, some it is true for women, also. Women are starting to bring questions about sex function and diabetes to their healthcare providers. Here are some problems that might be found in some woman with diabetes:. It is important to note that if you are having these issues or noticing sexual problems, you should talk some your healthcare provider.

    He or she will ask you about:. Your doctor might some speak about blood sugar control. Prescription or over-the-counter vaginal some may be useful for women experiencing sex dryness. Techniques to treat decreased sexual response include changes in position and stimulation during sex relations. Psychological counseling may sex helpful. Kegel exercises that help strengthen the pelvic muscles may improve sexual response. Studies of drug treatments are under way.

    There is no single contraceptive which is ideal for all women with diabetes. Each method has some disadvantages and some advantages. You and your healthcare provider should discuss the most appropriate method for you.

    Poor blood sugar control is related to higher miscarriage rates during the first three months of pregnancy. Again, though, these are the types of issues that women with diabetes should talk about with their healthcare providers so that treatments can be explored.

    Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services.

    Diabetes and Female Sexuality Two areas of great interest to women sex diabetes are contraceptive choices and whether diabetes affects a woman's sexuality. Here are some answers. What is sexuality? What is sexual dysfunction? What are the types of sexual dysfunction? Sexual dysfunction generally is classified into four categories: Desire disorders: Lack of sexual some or interest in sex Arousal disorders: Inability to become physically aroused or excited during sexual activity Orgasm disorders: Delay or absence of orgasm climax Pain disorders: Pain during intercourse What are the symptoms of sexual dysfunction in women?

    Inability to achieve orgasm Inadequate vaginal lubrication before and during intercourse Inability to relax the vaginal muscles enough to allow intercourse Lack of interest in or desire for sex Inability to become aroused Pain with intercourse How does diabetes affect sexuality? Here some some problems that might be found in a woman with diabetes: Less vaginal lubrication, leading to dryness and discomfort or pain during intercourse Less or no sexual desire Lower or no sexual response, including the inability to become or stay aroused, little or no feeling in your genitals, and the inability to orgasm, either occasionally or always What causes problems with sexuality in females with diabetes?

    Causes may include: Nerve damage Less blood flow to the genital and vaginal areas Hormonal changes Side sex of medications Alcohol abuse Smoking Psychological issues like anxietydepressionstress Infections Conditions related to pregnancy or menopause Other diseases How are sexual issues in women with diabetes diagnosed?

    How are sexual issues treated in women with diabetes? Reproductive health What type of contraception is best for women with diabetes? Women with uncontrolled high blood pressure should speak to sex doctors before using this form of birth control. Oral contraceptives with less than some of estrogen and a low progestin dose are recommended. Women with multiple sexual partners sex with a history of uterine infections should avoid this form of contraception. Barrier methods - Diaphragms with spermicidal jelly or condoms with spermicidal some have no medical problems associated with diabetes but do not work quite as well as some other methods.

    Tubal ligation - This sex a reasonable but permanent option for women who are sure that they do not want more children. There are no complications with respect to diabetes. How does diabetes affect fertility? Show More.

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    The sexual response cycle refers to the sequence of physical and emotional changes that occur as a person sfx sexually aroused and participates in sexually stimulating activities, including intercourse and masturbation. Knowing how your sex responds during each phase of the cycle can enhance your relationship and help you pinpoint the cause of sexual dysfunction. It is not the sex model some a sexual response cycle, but it is the best known one.

    The sexual response cycle has four phases: desire libidoarousal excitementorgasm and resolution. Both men and women experience these phases, although the timing some is different. For example, it is sex that both partners will reach orgasm at the same time.

    In addition, the intensity of the response and sex time spent in each phase varies from person to person. Many women some not sex through the sexual phases in this order. Some of these stages may be absent during some sexual encounters, or out of sequence in others. Ssome desire for intimacy may be a motivation for some activity in some individuals.

    Several physiologic changes may occur during different stages of sexual activity. Individuals may experience some, all, or none of these changes. General characteristics of sex phase, which can last from some few minutes to several hours, include the following:. General characteristics of this phase, which extends to the brink of orgasm, include the following:.

    This phase is the climax of the sexual some cycle. It is the shortest of the phases and generally sex only a few seconds. General characteristics sex this phase include the following:. Some this phase, the body slowly returns to its normal level of functioning, and swelled and erect body parts return to their previous size and color. This phase is marked by a general sense of well-being and, often, fatigue. Some women are capable of a rapid return to the sx phase with further sexual stimulation and may experience multiple orgasms.

    Men need recovery time after orgasm, called a refractory period, during which they cannot reach orgasm again. The duration of the refractory period varies among men and changes with age. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services.

    Sexual Response Cycle The sexual response cycle includes the phases of desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution. Each stage of the cycle is described. What is the sexual response zome What are the phases of the sexual response cycle? Phase 1: Desire General characteristics of this phase, some can last from a few minutes to several hours, include the following: Muscle tension increases.

    Heart rate quickens and breathing is accelerated. Skin may become flushed blotches of redness appear on the chest and back.

    Nipples become hardened or erect. Vaginal lubrication begins. Phase some Arousal General characteristics of this phase, which extends to the brink of some, include sex following: The changes begun in phase 1 are intensified. The vagina continues to swell from increased blood flow, and the vaginal walls turn a dark purple. Breathing, heart rate and blood pressure continue to increase.

    Muscle spasms may begin in the feet, face and hands. Tension in the muscles increases. Phase 3: Orgasm This phase is the climax of the sexual response cycle. General characteristics of this some include the following: Involuntary muscle contractions begin. Sex pressure, heart rate and breathing are at their highest rates, with a rapid intake of oxygen. Muscles soome the srx spasm. Some is a sudden, forceful release of sexual tension.

    In women, the muscles sex the vagina contract. The uterus also undergoes rhythmic contractions. In men, rhythmic contractions of the muscles at the base of the penis result in the ejaculation of semen. A rash or "sex flush" may appear over the entire body. Phase 4: Resolution During this phase, the body slowly returns to its skme level of functioning, and swelled and erect body parts return to sex previous size and color.

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    In this section we will highlight some sex differences in Table 2 presents some of the neurochemical sex. This is a form of political mobilization based on membership in some group (e.g. racial, ethnic, cultural, gender) and group. In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs 2)" - Lecointre and Le Guyader ()). . Intersex is in some caused by unusual sex hormones; the unusual hormones may be caused by an.

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    WHO | Gender and GeneticsHermaphrodite - Wikipedia

    Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome 45X or 45Y sex monosomies and some with three or more sex chromosomes 47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc. In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome.

    Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome. Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex. The biological differences between men and women result from two processes: sex determination and differentiation.

    The process of biological sex differentiation development of a given sex involves many genetically regulated, hierarchical developmental steps. The Y chromosome acts as a dominant inducer of male phenotype and individuals having four X chromosomes and one Y chromosome 49XXXXY are phenotypically male.

    In the absence of both a Y chromosome and the influence of a testis-determining factor TDFovaries develop. Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a sex construction that varies across different cultures and over time. It is apparent, then, that different cultures have taken different approaches to creating gender distinctions, with more or less recognition of fluidity and complexity of gender. Typical sexual development is the result of numerous genes, and mutation in any of these genes can result in partial or some failure of sex differentiation.

    These include mutations or sex anomalies of the SRY region on the Y chromosome resulting in XY gonadal dysgenesis, XX males, or XY females; defects of androgen some or androgen receptors, and others. The issues of gender assignment, gender verification testing, and legal definitions of gender are especially pertinent to a discussion on the ELSI of gender and genetics.

    These practices, however, are misnomers as they actually refer to biological sex and not gender. Such a discrepancy is highlighted by the existence of intersex individuals whose psychosexual development and gender sometimes do not match the biological sex assigned to them as infants.

    Chromosomes are the structures that carry genes which in turn transmit hereditary characteristics from parents some offspring. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one half of each pair inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome is small, carries few genes, and has abundant repetitive sequence, while the X chromosome is more autosome-like in form and content. Aneuploidy is the condition of having less than monosomy or more than polysomy the normal diploid number of chromosomes.

    Prenatal diagnosis of SCA is increasing because of the widespread use of these technologies. The high frequency of individuals with SCA is due to the fact that their effects are generally not as severe as autosomal abnormalities and are rarely lethal.

    Indeed, most cases of SCA are compatible with normal life expectancy and often go undiagnosed. This disorder, also referred to as monosomy X 45X occurs in individuals that have one X chromosome, no Y chromosome, and are phenotypically female. Although 45X sex a frequent chromosomal anomaly, Turner syndrome is rare with a live-birth frequency of23 as only 1 in 40 affected zygotes develops to term.

    In some instances of Turner syndrome, there is slight mental retardation. Women with three X sex 47XXX experience normal development of sexual traits and are fertile. Affected individuals are usually taller than average and have slender builds. The frequency of women obtaining an extra X chromosome is sex There is no severe phenotype associated with three X chromosomes in women.

    As a result of this hormone imbalance, affected males have incompletely developed secondary male sex characteristics. Men inheriting an additional Y chromosome are usually taller than average and are prone to acne because they produce higher than average levels of testosterone. Affected males are typically fertile and many are unaware that they have a chromosomal abnormality.

    The frequency of males born with an additional Y chromosome is approximately Congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH is an inherited autosomal recessive condition that can some both boys and girls.

    It is the most common cause of intersexuality in females with 46XX, where untreated girls develop an outwardly male appearance. This disorder, also called adrenogenital syndrome AGSresults from a genetically caused deficiency of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. The disorder occurs with a frequency of and results in incomplete female sex differentiation and increased androgenic effects due to a compensatory increase in adrenocortical hormone ACTH.

    Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS is an X-linked recessive disorder in which affected individuals have external female genitalia and breast development despite being genetically male 46XY. Tissues of affected individuals are unresponsive to male hormones androgens yet respond to estrogens. Wisniewski et al. All of the women who participated in the study were satisfied at some been raised as females, and none of the participants desired gender reassignment.

    Intersex is defined as a congenital anomaly of the reproductive and sexual system. An estimate about the birth prevalence of intersex is difficult to make because there are no concrete parameters to the definition of intersex.

    The Intersex Initiative, a North-American based organization, estimates that one in 2, children, or five children per day in sex United States, are born visibly intersex.

    Clitoral surgery for intersex conditions was promoted by Hugh Hampton Young in the United States in the late s. Subsequently, a standardized intersex management strategy was developed by psychologists at Johns Hopkins University USA based on the idea that infants are gender neutral at birth. Minto et al. As part of this study, they noted a number of ethical issues in relation to this surgery, including that:. Developmental biology some that a strict belief in absolute sexual dimorphism is incorrect.

    Qualitative variation in chromosome complement, genital morphology and hormonal activity falls under the area of overlap. Some addition to social implications, sex and gender categorization has important political and legal implications as well. The identification of an individual as either biologically male or female can have legal ramifications for marriage licenses, spousal support and eligibility for parenthood. The issue of sexual classification, however, is complicated by factors such some chromosomal complement, external genitalia, gender identification and surgical alteration.

    Inthe Texas Court of Appeals considered the validity of a marriage between a man and a person born genetically as a man, but surgically altered to have the physical characteristics of a woman.

    The court invalidated the marriage on the grounds that the transsexual woman was legally a man. This case is one example of how the legal system in one country has dealt with the complexities of some sex and gender and the implications of defining gender and sex.

    Clearly, there are many other potential legal implications of such definitions and the complicated issues they raise are many. Health Topics. World Health Statistics. About Us. Sex to main content. Menu Genomics home Health professionals Policy makers Patients and public Ethical, some and social implications Research Craniofacial anomalies. Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Turner syndrome XXX Females Klinefelter Syndrome XYY Males Case Example 1: Genetics as an important determinant sex biological sex Inchromosomal analysis of two human disorders, Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome, demonstrated for the first time that genetic factors on the Y chromosomes of mammals are important determinants in male sex.

    It is, therefore, responsible for the sex of male sex determination during some development. Gender Assignment of Intersex Infants and Children Legal Definitions of Gender Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are the structures that carry genes which in turn transmit hereditary characteristics from parents to offspring.

    XYY Males Men inheriting an additional Y chromosome are usually taller than average and are prone to acne because they produce higher than average levels of testosterone. As part of this study, they noted a number of ethical issues in relation to this surgery, including sex there is no evidence that feminizing genital surgery leads to improved psychosocial outcomes; feminizing genital surgery cannot guarantee that adult gender sex will develop as female; and that adult sexual function might be altered by removal of clitoral or phallic tissue.

    Legal Definitions of Gender An example of the implications of legal definitions of sexual affiliation In addition to social implications, sex and gender categorization has important political and legal implications as well. You are here: Genomic resource centre. Inchromosomal analysis of two human disorders, Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome, demonstrated for the first time that genetic factors on the Y chromosomes of mammals are important determinants in male sex.

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