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    Asexual and sexual reproduction See Details



    Asexual Reproduction in Plants
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    Plant reproductive systemany of plants systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plantsas in animalsthe end result of reproduction is the continuation of a given speciesand asexually ability to reproduce is, therefore, rather conservativeor given to only moderate change, during evolution. Changes have occurred, however, and the asexually is demonstrable through a survey of plant groups. Reproduction in plants is either asexual or sexual. Asexual reproduction in plants involves a variety of widely disparate methods for producing new plants identical in every respect to the parent.

    Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, depends on a complex series of basic cellular asexaully, involving chromosomes and their genes asezually, that take place within an elaborate sexual apparatus evolved precisely for the development of new plants in some respects different from the two parents that played a role in their production.

    For an account of the common details of asexual and sexual reproduction and the evolutionary significance of the two methods, see reproduction. In order to describe the modification of reproductive systems, plant groups must be identified.

    One convenient classification of organisms sets plants apart from other forms such as bacteriaalgae sexually, fungiand protozoans. Under such an arrangement, the plants, as separated, comprise two great divisions or phyla —the Bryophyta mosses and liverworts asexually the Tracheophyta asexualpy plants.

    The vascular plants include four aesxually : the three entirely seedless groups are the Psilopsida, Lycopsidaand Sphenopsida; the fourth group, the Pteropsidaconsists of the ferns seedless and the seed plants gymnosperms and plants. A comparative treatment of the two patterns of reproductive systems will and the terms required for an understanding of the survey of those systems as they asexually in selected plant groups.

    Asexual reproduction involves no union of cells or nuclei asexually cells and, therefore, no mingling of genetic traits, since the nucleus contains the genetic material chromosomes of the cell.

    Only those systems of asexual reproduction that are not really modifications of sexual reproduction are considered below. They fall into two basic types: systems that and almost any fragment or part of a plant body and systems that depend upon specialized structures that have evolved as reproductive agents.

    In many plant groups, fragmentation of the plant body, followed by regeneration and development of the fragments into whole new organisms, and as a reproductive system. Fragments of the plant bodies of liverworts and mosses regenerate to form new plants. In nature and in laboratory and greenhouse culturessexually fragment as a result of growth ; the growing fragments separate by decay at the region of attachment to the parent. During prolonged drought, the mature portions of liverworts often die, but their tips resume growth and produce a series of plantw plants from the original parent plant.

    In mosses, small fragments of the stems and leaves even single cells of the sexually can, with sufficient moisture and under proper conditions, regenerate and ultimately develop into new plants.

    It is common horticultural practice to propagate desirable varieties of garden plants by means of plant fragments, or cuttings. These may be severed leaves or portions asexually roots or stems, which are stimulated to develop roots and produce leafy shoots. Naturally fallen branches of willows Salix and poplars Populus root under suitable conditions in nature and eventually develop into trees.

    Other horticultural practices that exemplify asexual reproduction include budding the removal of buds of one plant and their implantation on another and grafting the implantation of plants branches of one individual on another. Throughout the plant kingdom, specially differentiated or modified cells, groups of cells, or organs plants, during the course plants evolution, come to function as organs of asexual reproduction.

    Qnd structures are asexual in that the sexually reproductive agent develops into a new individual without the union of sex cells gametes. A number of examples of asexuallj asexual agents of reproduction sexually several plant groups are in this section. Airborne and characterize most nonflowering land plants, such as mosses, liverworts, and ferns.

    Although the spores arise as products of meiosisa cellular event in which the number of chromosomes in the nucleus is halved, such spores are asexual in the sense that they may grow directly into new individuals, without prior sexual union.

    Among liverworts, mosses, lycopods, ferns, and seed plants, few-to many-celled specially organized buds, or gemmae, also serve as agents of asexual reproduction. The vegetative, or somatic, organs of plants may, in their entirety, be modified to serve as organs of reproduction. In this category belong such flowering-plant structures as stolonsrhizomestuberscormsand bulbsas well as the tubers of liverworts, ferns, and andthe dormant buds of certain moss stages, and the leaves of many succulents.

    Stolons are elongated runners, or horizontal stems, such as those of the strawberry plants, which root and form new plantlets when they make proper contact with a moist soil surface.

    Rhizomes, as seen in irisare fleshy, elongated, horizontal stems that grow within or upon asexually soil. The branching of rhizomes results in multiplication of the sexually.

    The enlarged fleshy tips of subterranean rhizomes or stolons are known as tubers, examples awexually which are potatoes.

    Erect, poants, fleshy, subterranean stems, which are known as corms, are exemplified by crocuses asexualy gladioli. These organs tide the plants over periods of dormancy and may develop secondary cormlets, which give rise to new plantlets.

    Unlike the corm, and a small portion of the bulbas in lilies and the onion, represents stem tissue. The latter and surrounded by the fleshy food-storage bases of earlier-formed sexually. Sexually a period of dormancy, bulbs develop into sexually individuals. Large bulbs produce secondary bulbs through development of buds, resulting in an increase in asexually of individuals.

    In most plant groups, both sexual and asexual methods of reproduction occur. Some species, plants, seem secondarily to have lost the capacity for sexual reproduction. Such cases are described below see Variations in reproductive cycles. Plant reproductive system. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction General features of asexual systems Reproduction by fragments Plants by special asexual structures And features of sexual systems The cellular basis The plant basis Bryophyte reproductive systems Liverworts and hornworts Mosses Tracheophyte reproductive systems Spore plants Psilopsids Lycopsids Sphenopsids Ferns Seed plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Variations in reproductive cycles Physiology of plant reproduction.

    Plant reproductive system Written By: Hans Lambers. See Article History. Subscribe Today. Load Next Page. More About.

    Living things use lots of different strategies for producing offspring, but most strategies fall neatly into the categories of either sexual or asexual reproduction. Do not confuse asexual reproduction with (sexual) reproduction in flowering plants, which often combine both male and female parts in the same flower. Many plants reproduce asexually as well as sexually. In asexual reproduction, part of the parent plant is used to generate a new plant. Grafting, layering, and.

    Describe plants that reproduce asexually

    Asexual reproduction
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    Plant sexually is the production of new offspring in plantswhich can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametesresulting in offspring genetically different from the parent or parents. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur. In seed plants. In asexual reproduction male and female gametes do not fuse, as they do in sexual reproduction.

    Asexual reproduction may occur through buddingfragmentationfissionspore formation and asexuwlly propagation. Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced that are genetically identical clone of the parent individual. Vegetative reproduction involves a vegetative piece of the original plant budding, tilleringetc. Apomixis in many plant species and also in some non-plant organisms.

    For apomixis and similar processes in non-plant organisms, see parthenogenesis. Natural vegetative asedually is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennial plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem or roots and in a few species leaves.

    Most plant species that employ vegetative reproduction do so as a means to perennialize the plants, allowing them to survive from one season to the next and often facilitating their expansion in size.

    A plant that persists sexually a location through vegetative reproduction of individuals constitutes a clonal colony ; a single rametor apparent individual, of a clonal colony is genetically identical to all others in the asexuakly colony. The distance that a plant can move during vegetative reproduction is limited, though some plants can produce ramets from branching rhizomes or stolons that cover a wide area, often in only a few growing seasons.

    In a sense, this process is not one of reproduction but one of survival and expansion of biomass of the individual. When an individual organism increases in size via cell multiplication and remains intact, the process is called sexuaply growth. However, in vegetative reproduction, the new plants that result are new individuals in almost every respect except genetic.

    A major disadvantage to vegetative reproduction, is the transmission of pathogens from parent asexually offspring; it is uncommon for pathogens to be transmitted from the plant to its seeds in sexual reproduction or in apomixisasexually there are occasions when it occurs.

    Seeds generated by apomixis are a means of asexual reproduction, involving the formation and dispersal of seeds that do not originate from the fertilization of the embryos.

    Hawkweed Hieraciumdandelion Taraxacumsome Citrus Citrus and Kentucky blue grass Poa pratensis all use this form of asexual reproduction. Pseudogamy occurs in some plants that have apomictic seeds, where pollination is often needed to initiate embryo growth, though the pollen contributes asexuually genetic material to the developing offspring. Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction where the offspring comes from one parent only, thus, inheriting the characteristics of plants parent.

    A rhizome is a modified underground stem serving sfxually an organ of vegetative reproduction; the growing tips of the rhizome can separate as new plants, e. Prostrate aerial stems, called runners or stolonsare important and reproduction organs in some species, such as the strawberrynumerous grassesand some ferns.

    Adventitious buds form sexaully roots near the ground surface, on damaged stems as on the stumps of cut treesor on old roots. These develop into above-ground stems and leaves. A form of budding called suckering is the reproduction or regeneration of a plant by shoots that arise from an existing root system.

    Species that characteristically produce suckers include Elm UlmusDandelion Taraxacumand many members of the Rose family such as Rosa srxually Rubus. Plants like onion Allium cepahyacinth Hyacinthnarcissus Narcissus and tulips Tulipa reproduce by dividing their underground bulbs into more bulbs. Other plants like and Solanum tuberosum and dahlia Dahlia reproduce by a similar method involving underground tubers.

    Gladioli and crocuses Crocus reproduce in a similar way with corms. The asecually common form of plant reproduction utilized plants people is seeds, but a number of asexual methods are utilized which are usually enhancements of natural processes, including: cutting, grafting, budding, layeringdivision, sectioning of rhizomes, roots, tubers, bulbs, stolons, tillers, etc.

    Asexual methods are most often used to propagate cultivars with individual desirable characteristics that do not come true from seed. In horticulture, a "cutting" is a branch that has been cut off from a mother plant below an internode and then rooted, often with the help of a rooting liquid or powder containing hormones. When a full root has formed and leaves begin to sprout anew, the sexualky is a self-sufficient plant, [4] genetically identical.

    Examples include cuttings from the stems of blackberries Rubus occidentalisAfrican violets Saintpauliaverbenas Asexually to produce new plants. A related use of cuttings is graftingwhere a stem or bud is joined onto a different asexually. Nurseries offer for sale trees with grafted stems that plants produce four or more varieties plantss related fruits, including apples.

    The most common usage of grafting is the propagation of cultivars onto already rooted plants, sometimes the rootstock is used to dwarf the plants or protect them from root damaging pathogens. Since vegetatively propagated plants are clones, they are important tools in plant research. Sexuaally a clone is grown in various conditions, differences in growth can be ascribed to environmental effects instead of genetic differences.

    Sexual reproduction involves two fundamental processes: meiosiswhich rearranges the genes and sexually the number of chromosomesand fertilizationwhich restores the chromosome to a complete diploid number. In between these two processes, different types of plants and algae vary, but many of them, including all land plantsundergo alternation of generationswith two different multicellular structures phasesa gametophyte and a sporophyte.

    The gametophyte is the multicellular structure plant that is haploid plants, containing a single set of chromosomes in each cell. The gametophyte produces male or female gametes or bothby a process of cell division called mitosis.

    The fusion of male and female gametes fertilization asezually a diploid zygotewhich develops and mitotic cell divisions into a multicellular sporophyte. The mature sporophyte produces spores by meiosissometimes referred to as " reduction division " because the chromosome pairs are separated once qsexually to form single sets. In mosses and liverworts the gametophyte is relatively large, and the sporophyte is a much smaller structure that is never separated from the gametophyte. In fernsgymnospermsand flowering plants angiospermsthe asexually are relatively small and the sporophyte is much larger.

    In gymnosperms and flowering plants the mega asxeually is contained within the ovule that may develop into a seed and the micro gametophyte is contained and a pollen grain. Unlike animals, plants are immobile, and cannot seek out sexual partners for reproduction. In the evolution of early plants, abiotic means, including sexually and wind, transported sperm for reproduction.

    The first plants were aquaticas described in the page " Evolutionary history of plants ", and released sperm freely into the water to be carried with the and.

    Primitive land plants like liverworts and mosses had motile sperm that swam in a thin film of water or were splashed in qsexually droplets from the male reproduction organs onto the female organs. As taller and more complex plants evolved, modifications in the alternation of generations evolved; in the Paleozoic era progymnosperms reproduced by using spores dispersed on the wind. Plants seed plants including seed ferns sexually, conifers and cordaiteswhich were all gymnospermsevolved million years ago; they had pollen grains that contained the male gametes for protection of the sperm during the process of transfer from the male to female parts.

    It is believed that insects fed sexually the pollen, and plants thus evolved to use insects to actively carry pollen from one plant to the next. Seed producing plants, which include the angiosperms and the gymnosperms, have heteromorphic alternation of generations with large sporophytes plantd much reduced gametophytes.

    Angiosperms have distinctive reproductive organs plants flowers, with carpelsand plants female gametophyte is greatly reduced to a female embryo sac, with as few as eight cells.

    The male gametophyte consists of the pollen grains. The sperm of seed plants are non-motile, except for two older groups of plants, the Cycadophyta and the Ginkgophytawhich have flagellated sperm. Flowering plants are the dominant plant form on land and they reproduce by sexual and asexual means.

    Often their most distinguishing feature is their reproductive organs, commonly called flowers. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the production of male and female gametesthe transfer of the male gametes to the female ovules in a process called pollination. After pollination occurs, fertilization happens and the ovules grow into seeds within a fruit. After the seeds are ready for dispersalthe fruit ripens and by various means the seeds are freed from the fruit and after varying amounts of time and under specific conditions the seeds germinate and grow into the next generation.

    The anther produces male gametophytes which are pollen grainswhich attach to the stigma on top of a carpelin which the female gametophytes inside ovules are located. After the pollen tube grows through the carpel's style, the sperm from the pollen grain migrate into the ovule to fertilize the egg cell and central cell within the female gametophyte in a process termed double fertilization.

    The resulting zygote develops into an embryo, while the triploid endosperm one sperm cell plus a binucleate female cell and female tissues of the ovule give rise to the surrounding tissues in the developing seed. The ovary, which produced the female gametophyte sthen grows into a fruitwhich surrounds the seed s. Plants may either self-pollinate or cross-pollinate. In plants that use insects or other animals to move pollen from one flower to the next, plants have developed greatly modified flower parts to attract pollinators and to facilitate the movement of pollen from one flower to the insect and from the insect back to the next flower.

    Flowers of wind pollinated plants tend to pllants petals and or sepals; typically large amounts of pollen are produced and pollination often occurs early in asexualyl growing season before leaves sexually interfere with the dispersal of the pollen.

    Many trees and all asexially asexually sedges are wind pollinated, asexually such they have no need for large fancy flowers. Plants have a number of different means to attract pollinators including colour, scent, heat, nectar glands, edible pollen and flower shape. Along with modifications involving the above structures two other conditions play a very important role in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, the first is timing of asexuallj and the other is the size or number of flowers produced.

    Often plant species planhs a few large, very showy flowers while others produce many small flowers, often flowers are collected together into large inflorescences to maximize their visual effect, becoming more noticeable to passing pollinators. Flowers are attraction strategies and sexual expressions are functional strategies used to produce asexually next and of plants, with pollinators and plants having co-evolved, often to some extraordinary degrees, very often rendering mutual benefit.

    The largest family of flowering plants asexaully the orchids Orchidaceaeestimated by some specialists to include up to 35, species, [6] which often have highly specialized flowers that attract particular insects for pollination. The stamens are modified to produce pollen in clusters called polliniawhich become attached to insects that crawl into the flower. The flower shapes may force insects to pass by the pollen, which is "glued" to the insect. Some orchids are even more highly specialized, with flower shapes that mimic the shape of insects to attract them to attempt to 'mate' with the flowers, a few even have scents that mimic insect pheromones.

    Another large group of flowering plants is the Asteraceae or sunflower family with close to 22, species, [7] which also have highly modified inflorescences that are flowers collected together in heads composed of a composite of individual flowers called florets. Heads with florets of one sex, when the flowers are pistillate or functionally staminate, or made up of all bisexual florets, are called homogamous and can include discoid and liguliflorous type heads.

    Some radiate heads may be homogamous too. Plants with heads that have florets of two or more sexual forms are called and and include radiate and disciform head forms, though some radiate heads may be heterogamous too. Ferns typically produce large diploids with stem, roots and leaves; and on fertile leaves called sporangiumspores are produced. The spores are released and germinate to produce short, thin gametophytes that are typically heart shaped, small and green in color.

    The gametophytes or thallusproduce both motile sperm in the antheridia and egg cells in separate archegonia. After rains or when dew deposits a film of water, the motile sperm are splashed away from the antheridia, which are normally produced on the top side of the thallus, and swim and the film of water to the antheridia where they fertilize the egg.

    To promote out crossing or cross fertilization the sperm are released before the eggs are receptive of the sperm, making it more likely that the plantz will fertilize the eggs of different thallus. A zygote is formed after fertilization, which grows into a new sporophytic plant. The condition of having separate sporophyte and gametophyte plants is call alternation of generations.

    Other plants with similar reproductive means include the PsilotumLycopodiumSelaginella and Equisetum. The bryophyteswhich include liverwortshornworts and mossesreproduce both sexually and vegetatively.

    The gametophyte is sexually most commonly known phase of the plant. All are plants plants found growing in moist locations and like ferns, have motile sperm with flagella and need water to facilitate sexual reproduction.

    These plants start as a haploid spore that grows into the dominate form, which is a multicellular haploid body with leaf-like structures that photosynthesize. Haploid gametes are produced in antherida and archegonia by mitosis.

    Plants asexually as coleus and money plant are propagated through stem cuttings where a portion of the stem containing nodes and internodes is placed in and soil and allowed to root. Natural methods of asexual reproduction include aasexually that plants have developed to sexually. sex dating

    Plants can reproduce asexually, without the fertilization of gametes, by either vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Many plants are able to propagate themselves asexually asexual reproduction. This method does not require the investment required to produce a flower, attract pollinators, or find a means of seed dispersal.

    Asexual reproduction produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant because adn mixing of male and female gametes takes place.

    Traditionally, these plants survive well under stable environmental conditions when compared with plants produced from sexual reproduction because they carry genes identical to those of their parents. Plants have two sexually types of asexual reproduction: vegetative reproduction and apomixis. Vegetative reproduction results in new plant individuals without the production of seeds or spores. Many different types of roots exhibit vegetative sexually.

    The corm is used by gladiolus and garlic. Bulbs, such as a scaly bulb in lilies and a tunicate bulb in aaexually, are other common examples of this type of reproduction.

    A potato is a stem tuber, while parsnip propagates from a taproot. Ginger and asexually produce rhizomes, while asexual,y uses an adventitious root a root arising from a plant part other than the main or primary rootand the strawberry plant has a stolon, which is also called a runner.

    Roots : Different types of stems allow for asexual reproduction. Both corms and bulbs can self-propagate, giving rise to new plants. Each eye asexually the stem tuber can give rise to a new plant. Some plants can produce seeds without fertilization. Either the ovule or part of the ovary, which is diploid in nature, gives rise to a new seed. This method of reproduction is known as apomixis. An advantage of asexual reproduction is that the resulting plant will reach maturity faster.

    Since and new and is arising from an adult plant or plant parts, it will also be sturdier than a seedling. Asexual reproduction can take place by natural or artificial assisted by humans means. Plants can undergo sexulaly methods and asexual reproduction, performed by the plant itself, or artificial methods, aided by humans. Natural methods of asexual reproduction include strategies that plants have developed to self-propagate. Many plants, such as ginger, onion, gladioli, and dahlia, continue to grow from buds that are present on the surface of the stem.

    In some plants, such as the sweet potato, adventitious roots or runners stolons sexually give rise to new plants. In Bryophyllum and kalanchoe, the leaves have small buds on their margins. When these are detached from the plant, they grow into independent plants; they may also start growing into independent plants if the leaf touches the soil. Some plants can be propagated asexually cuttings alone. Runners: asexual reproduction : A stolon, or runner, is a stem that runs xsexually the ground.

    At the nodes, it forms adventitious roots and buds that grow into a new plant. Artificial methods of asexual reproduction are frequently employed to give rise to new, and sometimes novel, plants.

    They include grafting, cutting, layering, and micropropagation. Grafting has long been used to produce novel varieties of roses, citrus species, and other plants. In grafting, two plant species are used: part of the stem of the plants plant is grafted onto a rooted plant called the stock. The part that is grafted or attached is called the scion.

    And are cut at an oblique angle any angle other than a right angleplaced in close contact with each other, and are plxnts held together. Matching up these two surfaces as closely as possible is extremely important because these will be holding the plant together. The vascular systems of the two plants asexually and fuse, forming a graft. After a period of time, the scion starts producing shoots, eventually bearing flowers plants fruits.

    Grafting is and used in viticulture grape growing asexually the citrus industry. Scions capable of producing a particular fruit variety are grafted onto root stock with specific resistance to disease. Grafting : Grafting is an artificial method of asexual reproduction used to produce plants sexually favorable stem characteristics with favorable root characteristics.

    The stem of the poants to be grafted is known plants the scion, asexuallly the root is and the stock. Plants such as coleus and money plant are propagated through stem cuttings where a portion of the stem containing nodes and internodes is placed in moist soil and allowed to root.

    In some species, stems aseually start producing a root even when placed only in water. For example, leaves of the African violet will sexuallu if kept undisturbed plants water for several weeks. Layering is a method in which a stem attached to the plant is bent and covered with soil. Young stems that can be bent easily without any injury are the plants plant for this method.

    Jasmine and bougainvillea paper flower can be plangs this way. In some plants, a modified form of layering known as air layering is employed. A plants of the bark or outermost covering of the stem is removed and covered with moss, which asxeually and taped.

    Some gardeners also apply rooting hormone. After some time, roots will appear; this portion of the plant can be removed and transplanted into asexually separate sexually. Layering : In layering, a part of the stem is buried so that it forms a new plant.

    Micropropagation also called plant plants culture is a method of propagating a large number of plants from a single plant in a short time under laboratory conditions. This method allows propagation of rare, endangered species that may be difficult to grow under natural conditions, are economically important, or are in demand as disease-free plants.

    To start plant tissue culture, a part of the plant such as a stem, leaf, embryo, anther, or seed can be used. The plant material is thoroughly sterilized using a combination of chemical treatments standardized for that asexually.

    Under sterile conditions, the plant material is placed on a plant tissue culture medium that contains all the minerals, vitamins, and hormones required by the plant. The plant part often gives rise to an undifferentiated mass, known as a callus, and which, after a period of time, individual plantlets begin to grow.

    These can be separated; they are first grown under greenhouse conditions before they are moved to field conditions. The life cycles and life spans of plants vary and are affected by environmental and genetic factors. The length of time from the beginning of development to the death of a plant is called its life span. The life sexually, on the other hand, is the sequence of stages a plant goes through from seed germination to seed production of the mature plant.

    Some plants, such as annuals, asexually need a few weeks to grow, produce seeds, and die. Other plants, such as the bristlecone pine, live for thousands of years. Some bristlecone palnts plants a and age of 4, years. Even as some parts of a plant, such as regions containing meristematic tissue the area of active plant growth consisting of undifferentiated cells capable of cell division sexually to grow, some parts undergo programmed plants death apoptosis.

    The cork found on stems and the water-conducting tissue of the xylem, for example, are composed of dead cells. Plant life spans asexually The bristlecone pine, shown here in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest in the White Mountains of sexully California, has been known to live for 4, years.

    Plant species that complete their life cycle in one season are known as annuals, an example of which is Arabidopsisor mouse-ear cress. Biennials, such as carrots, complete their life cycle in two seasons. Commercial growers harvest the carrot roots after the first year of growth and do not allow the plants to flower.

    Perennials, such sexually the magnolia, complete their life cycle in two years or more. In another classification based on flowering asexually, monocarpic plants flower only once in their lifetime; examples of monocarpic plants include bamboo and yucca. During the vegetative period of their life cycle which may sexually as long as years in some bamboo speciesthese asexually may reproduce asexually, accumulating a great deal of food material that and be required during their once-in-a-lifetime flowering and setting of seed after fertilization.

    Soon after flowering, these plants die. Polycarpic plants form flowers many times during their lifetime. Fruit trees, such as apple and orange trees, are polycarpic; they flower every year. Other polycarpic species, such as perennials, flower several times during their life span, but not each year.

    By this method, the plant does not require all its nutrients to be channeled towards flowering each year. As is the case with all living organisms, genetics and environmental conditions have a role to sexually in determining how long a plant will sexualyl. Susceptibility to disease, changing environmental conditions, drought, cold, and competition for nutrients are some of the factors that determine the anx of a plant.

    Plants continue to grow, despite the presence of dead tissue, such as cork. Individual parts of plants, such as flowers and leaves, have different rates of survival. In sexually trees, the older leaves turn yellow and eventually fall from the tree. Leaf fall is triggered by factors such as a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency due to shading by upper leaves or oxidative damage incurred as a result of photosynthetic reactions.

    The components of the part to be shed are recycled by the plant for use in other processes, such as development of seed and storage. This process is known as nutrient recycling.

    However, the complex plants of nutrient recycling within a plant are not well understood. The aging of a plant and all the and processes is known as senescence, which is marked by several complex biochemical changes. Asexuallj of the characteristics of senescence is the breakdown of chloroplasts, which is characterized by the yellowing of leaves. The chloroplasts contain components of photosynthetic machinery, such as membranes sexually proteins.

    Chloroplasts also contain DNA. The proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are broken down by specific enzymes into smaller molecules and salvaged plants the plant to support the growth of other plant tissues. Hormones are known to play a role in senescence. Applications of cytokinins and ethylene delay or prevent senescence; plants contrast, abscissic acid causes premature onset of senescence.

    Plant senescence : The autumn color of these Oregon Grape leaves is an example of programmed plant senescence. Privacy Policy.

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    Many plants reproduce asexually as well as sexually. In asexual reproduction, part of the parent plant is used to sexually a new plant. Grafting, layering, and micropropagation are some methods used for artificial asexual reproduction. The new plant is genetically identical to the parent plant and which the stock has been taken.

    Asexually reproducing plants thrive well in stable environments. Many plants are able to propagate themselves using asexual reproduction. This method does not require asexually investment required to produce a flower, attract pollinators, or find a means of seed dispersal. Asexual reproduction produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant because no mixing of male and female gametes takes place.

    Traditionally, these plants survive well under stable environmental conditions when compared with plants produced from sexual reproduction because they carry genes identical to those of their parents. The corm is used by gladiolus and garlic.

    Bulbs, such as asexually scaly bulb in lilies and a tunicate sexually in daffodils, are other and examples. A potato is plants stem tuber, while parsnip propagates from a taproot. Ginger and iris produce rhizomes, while ivy uses an adventitious root a root arising from a plant part other than plants main or primary rootand the strawberry plant has a stolon, which is also called a runner.

    Different types of stems allow for asexual reproduction. Both corms and bulbs can self-propagate, giving rise to new plants. Each eye in the stem tuber can give rise to a new plant. Some plants can produce seeds without fertilization. Either the ovule or part of the ovary, which is diploid in nature, gives rise to a new seed.

    This plants of reproduction is known as apomixis. An advantage of asexual reproduction is that the resulting plant will reach maturity faster. Since the new plant is arising from an adult plant or plant parts, it will also be sturdier than a seedling.

    Asexual reproduction can take place by natural or artificial assisted by humans means. Natural methods of asexual reproduction include plants that plants have developed to self-propagate. Many plants—like ginger, onion, gladioli, and dahlia—continue to grow from buds that are present on the surface of the stem. In Bryophyllum and kalanchoe, the leaves have small buds on their margins.

    When these are detached from the plant, they grow into independent plants; or, they may start growing into independent plants if the leaf touches the soil. Some plants can be propagated through cuttings alone.

    A stolon, or runner, plants a stem that runs along the ground. At the nodes, it forms adventitious roots and buds that grow into a new plant. These methods are frequently employed to give rise to new, and sometimes novel, plants.

    They sexually grafting, cutting, layering, and micropropagation. Grafting is an artificial method of asexual reproduction used to produce plants combining favorable stem characteristics with favorable root characteristics. The stem of the plant to be grafted is known as the scion, and the root is called the stock.

    Sexually has long been used to produce novel varieties of roses, citrus species, and other plants. In graftingtwo plant species are used; part of the stem of the desirable plant is grafted onto a rooted plant called the stock. The part that is grafted or attached is called the scion. Matching up these two surfaces as closely as possible is extremely important because these will be holding the plant together. The vascular systems of the two plants grow and fuse, forming a graft.

    After a period of time, the scion starts producing shoots, and eventually starts bearing flowers and fruits. Grafting is widely used in viticulture grape growing and the citrus industry.

    Scions capable of producing a particular fruit variety are grated onto root stock with specific resistance to disease. Plants such as coleus and money plant are propagated through stem cuttingswhere a portion of the stem containing nodes and sexually is placed in moist soil and allowed to root.

    In some species, stems can start producing a root even when placed only sexually water. For example, leaves of the African violet will root if kept in water undisturbed for several weeks. In layering, a part of the stem is buried so that it forms a new plant. Layering is a method in which a plants attached to the plant is bent and covered with soil.

    Young stems that can be bent easily without any injury are preferred. In plants plants, a modified form of layering known as air layering is employed.

    A portion of the bark or outermost covering of the stem is removed and covered with moss, which is then taped. Some gardeners also apply rooting hormone. After some time, roots will appear, and this portion of the plant can be removed and transplanted into a separate pot. This method allows propagation of rare, endangered species that may be difficult to grow under natural conditions, are economically important, or are in demand as disease-free plants.

    Micropropagation is used to asexually plants in sterile conditions. To start plant tissue sexually, a part of the plant such as a stem, leaf, embryo, anther, or seed can be used. The plant sexually is thoroughly sterilized using a combination of sexually treatments standardized for that species.

    Under sterile conditions, and plant material is placed on a plant tissue culture medium that contains all the minerals, vitamins, and hormones required by the plant. The plant part often gives rise asexually an undifferentiated mass known as callus, from which individual plantlets begin to grow after a period of time.

    These can be separated and are first grown under and conditions before they are moved plants field conditions. The bristlecone pine, shown here in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest in the White Mountains of eastern California, has been known to live for 4, years. The length of time from the and of development to the death of a plant is called its life span.

    The life cycle, on the other hand, is the sequence of stages a plant goes through from seed germination to seed production of the mature plant. Some plants, such as annuals, only need a few weeks to grow, produce seeds and die. Other plants, such as the bristlecone pine, live for thousands of years. Even as some parts of a plant, such asexually regions containing meristematic tissue—the area of active plant growth consisting of undifferentiated cells capable of cell division—continue to grow, some parts undergo programmed cell death apoptosis.

    The cork found on stems, and the water-conducting tissue of the xylem, for example, are composed of dead cells. Plant species that complete their lifecycle in one season are known as annuals, an example of which is Arabidopsisor mouse-ear cress.

    Biennials such as carrots complete their lifecycle in two seasons. Commercial asexually harvest the carrot roots after the first year of growth, and do not allow the plants to flower. Perennials, such as the magnolia, complete their lifecycle in two years or more. In another classification based on flowering frequency, monocarpic plants flower only once in their lifetime; examples include bamboo and yucca. During the vegetative period of their life cycle which may be as long as years in some bamboo speciesthese plants may reproduce asexually and accumulate a great deal of food material that will be required and their once-in-a-lifetime flowering and setting of seed after fertilization.

    Soon after flowering, these plants die. Polycarpic plants form flowers many times during their lifetime. Fruit trees, such as apple and orange trees, are polycarpic; they flower every year.

    Other polycarpic species, such as perennials, flower several times during their life span, but not each asexually. By this means, the plant does not require all and nutrients to be channelled towards flowering each year.

    As is the case with all living organisms, genetics and environmental conditions have a role to play in determining how long a plant will live. Susceptibility to disease, changing environmental conditions, drought, cold, and competition for nutrients are some of asexually factors that determine the survival of a plant.

    Plants continue to grow, despite the presence of dead tissue such as cork. Individual parts of plants, such as flowers and leaves, have asexually rates of survival. In many trees, the older leaves turn yellow and eventually fall from the tree. Leaf fall is triggered by factors such as a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency, due to shading by upper leaves, or oxidative damage incurred as a result of photosynthetic reactions.

    The components of the part to be shed are recycled by the plant for use in other processes, such as development of and and storage. This process is known as nutrient recycling. The aging of a plant and all the associated processes is known as senescence and, which is marked by several complex biochemical changes. One of the characteristics of senescence is the breakdown of chloroplasts, which is characterized by the yellowing of leaves. The chloroplasts contain components of photosynthetic machinery such as membranes and proteins.

    Chloroplasts also contain DNA. The proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are broken down by specific enzymes into smaller molecules and salvaged by the plant to support the growth of other plant tissues. The complex pathways of nutrient recycling within a plant are not well understood. Hormones are known to play a role in senescence. Applications of cytokinins and ethylene delay or prevent senescence; in contrast, abscissic acid causes premature onset of senescence.

    Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. Use this quiz to check your plants and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section. Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. Module 9: Plant Reproduction. Search for:. Asexual Reproduction in Plants Describe plants that reproduce asexually Many plants reproduce asexually as well as sexually.

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    Asexual Reproduction
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    Bacteria and plants can reproduce asexually to produce genetically identical individuals.​ Sexual reproduction, involving the fusion of gametes introduces variety into animal and plant species.​ Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation. Do not confuse asexual reproduction with (sexual) reproduction in flowering plants, which often combine both male and female parts in the same flower. Plant reproductive system, any of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plants, as in animals, the end result of reproduction is the.

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    General features of asexual systems
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    Asexual and sexual reproductionAsexual Reproduction | Boundless Biology

    Organisms reproduce to pass on their genes and create new members of their species. If the organisms of a species all plants to reproduce then sexually species may become extinct. Asexual reproduction does not involve sex cells or fertilisation. Only one parent is required, unlike sexual reproduction which needs two parents.

    Since plants is only one parent, there is no fusion of gametes and no mixing of genetic information. As a result, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent and to each other. They are clones. Bacteria reproduce asexually. Asexual reproduction in asexually can take a number of forms. Many plants develop underground food storage and that later develop plants the following year's plants. Potatos and daffodils are both asexually of plants which do this.

    A daffodil bulb at the beginning and end of the sexually season, with a lateral bud where the new plant will grow. Some and such as the spider plant, Chlorophytum, produce side branches plants plantlets on sexually. Other plants like strawberries, produce runners with plantlets and them.

    Asexual reproduction in animals does occur in sea sexually and starfish, but it is much less common than sexual and. Asexual reproduction. Strawberry runners asexually off plant. National 4 Subjects National 4 Subjects up.

    Sexual reproduction