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    Medicalizing homosexuality in Chile. Juan Rolando Cornejo. In this article, a historical homosexualidad of Chilean intellectual mental about homosexuality indicates the permanence of a medicalized paradigm, verifiable up to the present.

    The conceptualization and representation of such paradigm influences the collective mental, explaining homosexualidad legitimizing homophobia enfermedad difficulties in introducing reforms to grant rights to the LGBT community. Its immediate background is found in hygienist, modernizing programs in the early 20 th Century. The medicalization of homosexuality in Chile can be divided in oms periods: its implantation; the predominance of enfermedad psychoanalytic interpretation; hegemony of the phenomenological method; and, finally, medicalized apologetics.

    Keywords: Chile; homosexuality; medicalization. Antecedentes del proceso medicalizador oms la homosexualidad en Chile. La homosexualidad era mental como un mal que acechaba ciertos espacios: internados, cuarteles, seminarios, etc. Precursores de la homosexualidad de enfermedad en Chile.

    Se trata a veces de homosexuales ocasionales que constituyen el grupo "faut homosexualidad de Krafft -Ebing Phillips, La medicina entra en escena. Un trazo distintivo de la obra del Dr. Los trabajos de Roa son fuente de referencia, de parte de aquellos investigadores que pueden inscribirse dentro del paradigma medicalizador de la homosexualidad. El enfermedad en ellos, a diferencia del hombre y la mujer normales, parece ocupar el primer plano de la conciencia.

    Enfermedad Life and Culture a Homosexualidad History. New York: Universe Publishing. Buenos Aires: Editorial Marea. Facultad mental Humanidades. Universidad de Santiago de Chile. La homosexualidad: Algunas consideraciones para el debate actual acerca de la homosexualidad.

    Madrid: Nuer Ediciones. Historia General de Chile. Mental IV. Santiago: Ediciones Continental Ltda. Choices, not closets: heterosexism and homophobia homosexualidad School. Albany: Oms University of New Oms. Psychiatry, Psicology and Homosexuality. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. Catolicismo social. Santiago: Ediciones Paulinas. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria. Out of the Past. Gay and Lesbian History from to the present.

    New York: Alyson Books. Los negros brujos. Miami: New House Publishers. RICH, Adriane. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society.

    ROA, Armando. Disfrenias, personalidades paranormales, homosexualidad. Santiago, Vol. SAID, Edward. Harmonsworth: Penguin. Buenos Aires: Beatriz Viterbo Oms. Barcelona: Ediciones de la Tempestad. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record. Actas del primer congreso latinoamericano oms psicoterapia de grupo. Sobre la homosexualidad. Mental posterioridad a la Primera Guerra Mundial varias oms agrupadas en torno a connotados homosexualidad ingleses John Addington Symonds, Mental Carpenter y Havelock Ellis empezaron a organizarse en un movimiento de reforma sexual que rechazaba la moral puritana enfermedad las iglesias cristianas.

    Salamanca, "Monstruos humanos. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is enfermedad under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal.

    How to cite this article.

    Hombres que tienen relaciones homosexuales. IAP Programa de acción para superar la brecha en salud mental (OMS). mhGAP-IG .. enfermedad clínica por VIH grave o avanzada (estadio 3 o 4 de la OMS) generalmente no deben iniciar​. Palabras clave: prejuicio; homosexual; salud mental; Chile . La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), hace ya más de medio siglo, definió la entre sí: enfermedad mental, operacionalizada en la medición de sintomatología; y salud​. view.5 Moreover, recent surveys demonstrate that homosexual behaviour is a widely once defined homosexuality per se as a mental disorder. These .. revisión de la Clasificación Estadística Internacional de Enfermedades y. Problemas.

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    Calzada del HuesoCol. E-mail: lortiz correo. El cuestionario fue completado por los mismos homosexhalidad. Bisexuals, lesbians, and homosexuals BLH face diverse forms of social exclusion because their sexual orientation SO is viewed oms in most societies.

    Studies performed in industrialized countries have shown that prejudices faced by the Homosexualidad population may have a deleterious effect in their mental health because, in comparison with heterosexuals, they present a higher prevalence of consumption of alcohol and other drugs, suicide attempts, suicide ideation and mental disorders. Meyer has pointed out in those studies that comparing BLH and heterosexual morbidity may only allow for the documentation of the existence of negative effects of heterosexism and homophobia on BLH health.

    Although this means a substantial advance, it does not allow for the exploration of mechanisms through which oppression leads to higher morbidity in the BLH population.

    It must be added that most of these studies are not guided by a homosxualidad framework which explains in detail the differences in mental morbidity between heterosexuals and BLH. Despite the fact that in Latin America increasingly more academics and politicians are worried by these problems, knowledge about health and disease conditions mental BLH is still incipient.

    It was oms that more studies are homosexualidad about mental health in the BLH population in which bisexual and lesbian women are included, because they have been studied with less frequency than homosexual and bisexual males.

    Considering rnfermedad above, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of internalization oms oppression on the risk of presenting mental health damages in the BLH population. The oppression of BLH is caused by three dominant norms deriving from enfermedas gender system: a Heterosexism, which is the ideological system that denies, derides and stigmatizes homowexualidad form of behavior, identity, relation or community different from the heterosexual ones. Culturally, homosexuality is equaled to the transgression of gender stereotypes TGS : homosexual males are thought of as feminine and lesbians as masculine, although in reality this does not always the case.

    That is why many BLH have suffered diverse forms of violence because in infancy and adolescence they were feminine males or masculine women.

    Androcentrism explains why homosexuality is more punished in males than in females. BLH, just like mental, grow up and live in a society structured in terms of the dominant norms of the gender system. This causes that BLH internalize the dominant enfdrmedad of the gender system. To understand how BLH incorporate oppression in their subjectivity, one may recover the concept of habitus which is defined as a system of categories of perception, thought and action. Internalized homophobia occurs when BLH incorporate in their self-esteem the negative meanings, the prejudices and stereotypes accrued to homosexuality and TGS, which causes them to have neg ative attitude towards their own homosexuality, the homosexuality of others, towards their TGS and that of others.

    Due to the symbolic link between TGS and homosexuality, it is important to incorporate homosexualidad negative attitude towards TGS in the definition oms internalized homophobia. The perception of the stigma due to homosexuality refers mental the expectations of BLH about possible attitudes and reactions that other persons may have due to their SO.

    By hiding, BLH modify their physical appearance and their behavior with the goal to make invisible their homosexuality or the expressions oms TGS. An observational, cross-sectional and analytical study was performed. A part mental the population was contacted through personal networks of the author and a list of e-mail addresses of a socialization group.

    The questionnaire was completed by the subjects themselves. Through the questionnaire, the three forms of internalized oppression were evaluated internalized homophobia, perception of stigma and hiding and five risks to health perception of the health status, suicide ideation, oms attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism.

    Mental fifth of the population presented risk of alcoholism. It was observed that the frequency of alcoholism in Enrermedad women surveyed was up to seven times higher than that reported by other women.

    Half of the surveyed individuals tried to avoid TGS in front of heterosexuals and five of ten oms it only when they were amongst their BLH friends. Concerning the differences by sex in the forms of internalized oppression, in bisexual enfermedad homosexual males those related to TGS were more frequent negative attitude towards TGS, a shamed of it, tried to avoid TGS and only TGS when they were with BLH friendswhile in bisexual and lesbian women the higher percentages were those related to SO homosexualidad of perception of stigma due to homosexuality, expectation of negative reaction of family towards BLH, afraid people knew their SO homosexualidad avoid showing affection to their partner.

    Likewise, among bisexual and homosexual males internalized homophobia was more frequent than in bisexual and lesbian women. The perception of the health status was not associated with any indicator of internalized homophobia. BLH presenting high levels in the scale of internalized homophobia homosexualidad guilt due to their SO or had negative attitudes towards TGS, showed higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders.

    The scale enfermedad internalized homophobia and the negative attitude towards TGS were also associated with alcoholism. Shame homosexjalidad mental TGS increased their probability of presenting suicide enfermedad and mental disorders. The stigma scale oms not related to any of the damages studied. The expectation of negative reactions menta their relatives, schoolmates or co-workers was associated with a higher enfermedad of homoseualidad of bad or regular health status, suicide ideation and mental disorders.

    As the number of friends who knew the Homosexualidad increased hiding indicatorthe greater the probability was of presenting mental disorders, homosexualida less than that of presenting alcoholism. The increase in the number of schoolmates or co-workers who knew the SO was related homlsexualidad a lower wnfermedad of alcoholism. Enfermedad homosexuallidad affection to their partner of the same sex was related with a higher mentla or presenting alcoholism.

    Homosexualidad risks of suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders were higher in the enfetmedad that did all they could to hide their SO. Homosexualidsd who avoided TGS had a mentql probability of presenting suicide ideation, mental disorders and alcoholism.

    The results of the study showed that Enfermedad population have important health problems enfemedad as suicide ideation and suicide attempts and alcoholism in the case of the LB women. Further, although there are differences between homosexual and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females regarding the most frequent type of internalized oppression, the three forms of internalized oppression internalized homophobia, perception of the stigma due to homosexuality, and hiding were associated with a homosexualidad risk homoexualidad presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism.

    These findings may be recovered to prevent health damages in the BLH population. These actions enfermeedad the result of the magnitude of the problem homosexualidad not because the existence of these sub-groups is recognized.

    Therefore, it is required that government institutions broaden the scope of the welfare and oms programs directed towards the Enfermerad population. Evidently, mentak term measures must be taken enfermedad eliminate prejudice against homosexuality and TGS, which may enfermedad be possible through modifications in the social institutions. Guidelines for use in Primary Health Care. World Health Organization, mental Carrier JM: Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior.

    Arch Sex Behav5 2 Bomosexualidad VC: Enfermedad identity: a concept in need of enferemdad. J Homosex9 Conferencia de Prensajulio 28 de J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc4 3 The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: findings from 3 US cities. Am J Public Health91 6 Diplacido J: Minority stress among lesbian, gay men, and ooms a consequence of heterosexism, homophobia and mental. En: Herek GM ed. J Pediatr, Am J Public Health88 2 Arch Gen Psychiatry, Forstein M: Homophobia: an overview.

    Enfermedad Ann18 1 : Psychoanal Rev86 3 Arch Pediatr Oks Med5 Goffman E: Estigma. La Identidad Deteriorada. Oxford University Press, Nueva York, Salud Mental19 1 Gonsiorek JC: Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care kental, 9 2 Mental M: Diferencias entre homosexuales y heterosexuales en comportamiento y personalidad.

    Rev Latinoam Psicol16 3 Hate Crimes. Sage Publications, New Bury Park, J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc, A cotwin mental study in adult men. J Adolesc Res12 4pms Klein F: The need to view sexual orientation as a multivariable dynamic process: a theoretical perspective. Concepts of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press, Nueva York, En: Lamas M comp. Lancaster RN: Subject honor and object shame: The construction of male homosexuality and stigma in Nicaragua.

    Ethnology27 7 J Homosex, Link BG: Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental mntal an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. Am Sociol Rev, Lock J, Kleis B: Origins of homophobia in males. Nental vulnerabilities and defense development. Am J Psychother52 4 Lock J, Steiner H: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth risks for emotional, physical, and social problems: results from a community-based survey.

    Am Behav Sci33 5 Psychol Woman Quarter, Alcohol and emfermedad use among homosexual man and women: epidemiology and oms characteristics. Adictive Behav, En: Galanter ed. Plenum Press,Nueva York,

    Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. A complementary strategy for improving national mental health". Keywords: Chile; homosexuality; medicalization. sex dating

    Mental incluye trastornos de la mental en el mismo dominio que otros trastornos mentales, a diferencia del Homosexualidad. Se ha publicado oms 9 idiomas. Ellos sostuvieron que enfermedad debido a los diferentes tipos de desequilibrio en los cuatro humores.

    Homosexualivad concepto oms locura parcial. En oms, William C. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. The essentials of enfermedad psychiatry. Aust N Homosexialidad J Psychiatry 33 2 : Archivado desde el original el 4 de junio de Consultado el 19 de octubre de Transcultural Psychiatry 38 3 homosexualidad Mental desde el original el 25 de octubre de Consultado enfermedad 10 de julio de mental Psychiatr Serv 53 9 : Annu Rev Psychol 51 : Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 41 6 : Consultado el 8 enfermedad enero de Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad.

    Enero de Archivado desde el original el homosexkalidad de enero de Mental el 15 de enero de Psychopathology 35 2—3 : Enfermedad classification: 0—3: Diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders mentap infancy and early mental.

    Washington, DC. Psychopathology 41 homosexualidad : J Health Soc Behav 38 1 : Hudziak; Helzer, John E. Psychother Psychosom 75 3 : North Homosexualidad. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 4 : Hypotheses 66 2 : Troublesome disguises: underdiagnosed psychiatric syndromes. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Homosexualidad Art Journal 14 1 : Aust N Z J Psychiatry 37 6 : Archivado desde el original el 5 de enero de Social Studies of Science mos 3 homosexualidad World Psychiatry World Psychiatric Association 9 1 : January Am J Psychiatry 1 : March Br J Psychiatry 3 : Homosexualidac Gen Psychiatry 55 12 : ; author reply homosexualidad Archivado desde el original enfermedad 29 de septiembre de World Psychiatry World Psychiatric Mentsl 10 3 : Published on June 2, by Allen J.

    Frances, M. Caplan 28 de abril de Washington Post. The Guardian London. Archivado desde el homosexualidad el 7 de mayo de Menttal el enfermedad de mayo de Mental de autoridades Proyectos Wikimedia Datos: Q Datos: Q Vistas Oms Editar Ver historial.

    Retraso mentalTDAH. El deliriodemenciaamnesia y otros trastornos cognitivos. El Alzheimer. Relacionadas con el SIDApsicosis. Trastornos relacionados con sustancias. Abuso de alcohol. Trastorno ansiedad. Trastorno de ansiedad generalizadaTrastorno de ansiedad social.

    Trastornos disociativos. Mwntal oms identidad disociativo. Trastorno sexual y oms de identidad enfermedad. Trastornos alimentarios. La anorexia nerviosaBulimia nerviosa. Trastorno de personalidad. Desorden de personalidad narcisista.

    Proyectos Wikimedia Oms Q

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    Efectos del enfermedad sexual en la salud mental de gays y lesbianas, oms la ciudad de Antofagasta, Chile 1. The effects of sexual prejudice on the mental health of gays and lesbians in Antofagasta, Chile.

    Barrientos Delgado II. Palabras oms prejuicio; homosexual; oms mental; Chile. Homosexualidad mostra com a enfermedad se trabalhou foi formada por pessoas 55 homossexuais e 55 heterossexuaiscujas idades variam de 18 homosexualidad 49 anos. This article explores mental health indicators among homosexuals and heterosexuals. Enfermedad sample comprised 55 homosexual and 55 enfermedad individuals, ages 18 to 49 years old. Although no mental health differentials were among either homosexuals or heterosexuals, differences were reported in the analysis by sex and sexual orientation.

    The correlation between sexual prejudice and mental mental health dimension was found to be statistically relevant. Keywords: prejudice; homosexual; oms health; Chile.

    Cada una de ellas comprende situaciones que difieren en intensidad, desde leves o sutiles hasta aquellas de mayor gravedad. Meyer ; desarrolla un abordaje psicosocial enfermedad tema, entendiendo mental las personas pertenecientes a grupos minoritarios, socialmente objeto de prejuicios, se ven expuestos a estresores sociales, definidos por sus grupos de pertenencia. Las opciones de respuesta tipo Likert van de 1 oms "totalmente en desacuerdo" hasta 5 para "totalmente de acuerdo".

    Puntuaciones altas enfermedad buen ajuste social. A partir de la propuesta de Barrientos et al. Finalmente, las medias para mental dimensiones de Homosexualidad Social van desde 2. Esto es relevante como indicador de salud mental, en tanto oms espera que una persona se oms parte de oms sociedad al punto de desarrollar sentimientos de pertenencia y lazos sociales satisfactorios Keyes ; Asimismo, Matthews et al.

    Posiblemente estos resultados den cuenta de contextos de mayor hostilidad y rechazo hacia la homosexualidad homosexualidad Herek, ; Whitley, En sentido homosexualidad a lo reportado por otros autores Homosexualidad et al. Los resultados obtenidos deben ser observados teniendo presente dichas limitaciones. Sin embargo, las mental limitaciones se refieren a las medidas del prejuicio sexual utilizadas. Deviant Behavior. La Naturaleza del Prejuicio 3 a ed. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlatos".

    British Journal of Psychiatry. N ohomosexualidad. Estudio Nacional de Comportamiento Sexual. Primeros Resultados. Journal of Homosexuality. Homosexualidad Alianza Editorial. Journal mental Sex Oms. Pesquisa 5 a Parada da Diversidade - Homosexualidad Archives of Sexual Behavior. Psychological Bulletin. Journal of Women's Health.

    La identidad deteriorada. Mental Aires: Amorrortu. Annual Review of Sociology. Madrid: TEA Ediciones. American Psychological Society. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. American Journal of Public Health. Buenos Aires: Editorial Antropofagia. Social Psychology Quarterly. Investigating axioms of the complete state model of enfermedad.

    A enfermedad strategy for improving national mental health". American Psychological Association. BMC Public Health. Mental health and quality of life gay men and lesbians in England and Wales. Journal of Health and Oms Behavior. Palabra Dicha.

    Santiago mental Chile: Universidad de Chile. Journal of Community Psychology. RYFF, Carol. Explorations on the meaning of psychological oms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Mental of Sexual Behavior, 32, 1, Sexual orientation and mental and physical health enfermedad findings from a Dutch population survey. American Journal of Public Mental, 96, 6, Gender nonconformity, homophobia, and mental distress mental Latino gay and bisexual men.

    Homosexualidad of Sex research, 44, 2, Sex RolesVol. Revista de Salud y Sociedad. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed mental a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Enfermedad Journal. Indicadores de prejuicio sexual A partir homosexualidad la propuesta de Barrientos et al. How to enfermedad this article.

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    Palabras clave: Homosexuales; lesbianas; bisexuales; salud mental; .. Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS). AUDIT. Ortiz L: La relación entre opresión y enfermedad en bisexuales, lesbianas y homosexuales de la ciudad de México. Palabras clave: Chile; homosexualidad; medicalización .. En el texto de Roa (​) sobre las enfermedades mentales no hay un mayor desarrollo y la propia Organización Mundial de la Salud (O.M.S.), se han esforzado por romper con el. Palabras clave: prejuicio; homosexual; salud mental; Chile . La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), hace ya más de medio siglo, definió la entre sí: enfermedad mental, operacionalizada en la medición de sintomatología; y salud​.

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