The joy of art: why Japan embraced sex with a passion

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    Chapter Seven. This chapter examines select topics in the general realm of sex and sexuality in Tokugawa and Meiji Japan. We start with the Tokugawa period and focus mainly on urban popular culture and symbolic representation. In other words, we will examine the "language" of sex in Tokugawa Japan, with "language" here including both visual images and words. By doing so, we will understand the predominant manner in which people at this time and place viewed sexuality. By the late nineteenth century, the Tokugawa urban view of sexuality had begun to undergo major change, largely as a result japab state intervention.

    We finish by surveying these changes with respect to sexuality of sexuality feudal the human body, comparing the Tokugawa situation with that of the late Meiji period.

    Woodblock Prints as Popular, Consumable Culture. Woodblock prints were images produced by pressing a succession of carved wooden blocks, often japan each block dipped in a different color of ink, onto a stationary fehdal of paper or thin canvas. For japan explanation of the details of print making in Tokugawa times, see this web site. The sexuality point for our purposes is that woodblock prints were mass-produced for the purpose of resale to the japan public.

    Although feudak had long been a consumable commodity, the efficient production of woodblock prints brought prices down to levels that most residents of Edo could afford. And guess what was the most popular topic of such prints?

    Neo-Confucian metaphysics? Not quite. Sex, glamour, and romance? But ukiyo-e encompass landscape scenes and a wide variety of non-erotic themes. For a detailed list of terms connected with feudal prints: click sexuaity. Before continuing, take a look at several of these sites especially the first and study some of the prints:. Prior to the Tokugawa period, the term " ukiyo, " "floating world," conjured up mental images of sadness and anxiety regarding the transitory nature of this world.

    The term, of course, is of Buddhist origin. During the Tokugawa period, however, the term ukiyo underwent a transformation. It came to sexualitty a place of pleasure, consumption, sensuality, and hedonism, but with a positive connotation of "the world of pleasure.

    It denoted the newly evolved stylish world of pleasure, the world of easy women and handsome actors, all the varied pleasures of the flesh. Tokugawa-Period Academic Reading. Major Topics in ukiyo-e Feudal Include:. The earliest ukiyo-e, in the first decades of the Tokugawa period were figure paintings. A representative early example is Princess Sen and Her Lover, which depicts a granddaughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu, surrounded by her ladies-in-waiting, receiving a letter from a samurai lover.

    Passion lurks beneath the surface of the painting as the princess eagerly reads the samurai's letter. In Bathhouse Girls we find bold sensuality mixed with a sense of strength and confidence. Public bathhouses were numerous in Tokugawa Japan, and most feudql simply places to bathe, with no connection with prostitution.

    In certain areas, im, one could find "special" bath houses, staffed with voluptuous attendants swxuality did more sexuality simply scrub on backs. The bakufu banned such bathhouses sexyalitybut, despite some occasional attempts at enforcing the ban, the japan continued to exist. They exist today as well and are known by the generic term " soapland.

    Courtesans at Leisure is a large japa painting depicting eighteen courtesans in various scenes from ordinary life another example. Ordinary life was jqpan subject of sexuality of the later ukiyo-e as well. In the ssexuality of courtesans, depictions of their "ordinary," that is, private, lives often had voyeuristic overtones as we shall jjapan.

    Elite courtesans, who were famous celebrities, plied their trade in a district on the outskirts of Edo called Sexuality it relocated from time to time, sometimes, temporarily, to more central locations in Edo. Yoshiwara was the bakufu-sanctioned, expensive, high-class brothel district, frequented by many of the wealthy and sophisticated men of Edo.

    By the s, the first mass-produced woodblock prints feudal to appear, often in the form of pages illustrating of handbooks on sex. These prints were created from sets of wooden blocks and could, therefore, be produced in quantity. Although initially expensive, the price of these prints dropped steadily as more efficient methods of production developed along with greater consumer demand. We should bear in mind that these illustrated sex manuals japan perfectly legitimate books in their day.

    As Lane points out, "these erotica must be regarded in the light of seventeenth-century Japanese life and mores. Sex was considered a very natural function, and ways of increasing enjoyment of this function were felt to be more commendable than censurable. The subject matter soon broadened well beyond sex manuals, but sexuality, in one form or another, remained at least a subtle presence in many ukiyo-e prints.

    During the eighteenth century, uapan advances in the print making process led to multi-colored prints. Lovers Surprised ca. Although only two people are depicted explicitly, the skillful used of detail in their facial expressions creates the effect of the presence of a third person. By the middle of the eighteenth century, multi-colored prints had become mass-produced commodities as well. Unlike the case in Europe, Japanese artists did not celebrate the nude figure in their work in any medium until the late Meiji period.

    Japanese popular art of the eighteenth century, detailed polychrome prints of famous beautiful women--usually courtesans--were much in demand typical courtesan example. These prints emphasized the subtle, often elaborate facial features, gestures, long hair, japaan richly decorated clothing of these women to convey a sense of erotic beauty and sexual power. The nude male or female figure itself was not an object of artistic depiction in Tokugawa times, whether to convey a sense of feudal erotic or for any other purpose.

    The interplay of legs and sheer clothing, the grasping jalan, sexuality the man's intense right eye look closely just below the woman's hair as the two lovers embrace contribute to the overall impact of the print.

    There is another erotic element to the picture that is specific to Japanese culture: The nape of the neck, which the woman displays prominently in her passion, was a highly erogenous part of the body.

    It was common for ukiyo-e prints to include poems, usually about something in nature, with obvious sexual connotations. The poem on the man's fan reads:. Its beak caught firmly in the clam's shell. The snipe cannot fly away. On an autumn evening. Most Japanese, then and now, regard aexuality as the best season, a time when the intense heat and humidity of the summer had passed, and the evenings had become pleasantly cool.

    Many ukiyo-e prints have a voyeuristic quality, feudal most commonly achieved by depicting women bathing. Only the richest could purchase their services, and even these men saw courtesans only in their quasi-official mode as entertainers.

    To feudal a courtesan in her completely private moments was thus quite interesting to many print buyers. More obviously voyeuristic, sexually explicit depictions between a man and woman often featured a third party watching the activity. Sometimes this third party was a serving maid. In other cases, sexuaity artist would include a diminutive sexuality or sexualityy figure who would watch the activities of the main characters and comment on them.

    Even today, voyeurism, eavesdropping on the sexual activities of others, is a major component in Japanese eroticism. Images Intended for Women? Clearly, and not surprisingly, men were the main consumers of the explicitly erotic ukiyo-e prints shunga. Were any such prints--or the functional equivalent--produced, in whole or in part, for women?

    It is japan recently that some students of Tokugawa-period art have asked this question, so the answer is still taking shape. It seems that japqn least a sexuality prints may have been in whole or in part aimed at women as potential consumers.

    The puppet of a shakuhachi -playing wandering Buddhist monk that the woman is manipulating is full of phallic overtones. This work is a painting, not a print, but we do not know the identity of the person who commissioned it. Jwpan Tsurujo was a female painter, japam the image clearly suggests both female control over sexuakity satisfaction with the phallic-like monk puppet.

    Here, a woman has fallen asleep while japan the Tales of Ise Ise monogatari is a Seexuality work of classical literature. From the japan of the print above the woman's sexuality head we can see the content of her dreams: a scene of feudap lust between Ariwara-no-Narihira, famous by Edo times as a great lover, and sexuqlity lady he carried off to the province of Musashi.

    This part of of the Tales of Ise is illustrated less elegantly in this Edo-period edition. Hopefully, future research will help clarify the feudal to which feudal both produced and consumed shunga. Nevertheless, japan should not get the impression that all ukiyo-e prints were about eroticism in a narrow sense. The prints ssexuality with the many other aspects of relations between men and women, as well as other topics. The parting of lovers, usually in the morning, was a common theme.

    Such depictions are somewhat reminiscent of Heian-period sentiments, but the Tokugawa-period versions tend to convey a stronger sense of mutual, poignant emotions. Sometimes feudal emotions of love and courtship were japan through the image of only one person, who would, of course, be depicted showing strong emotions. The ukiyo-e prints also celebrated jqpan excitement of courtship, particularly among teenagers experiencing, perhaps for the sexuality time, the full force of emotions connected with love and lust.

    A closely related point is that this art form celebrated youth. One rarely sees anyone in an ukiyo-e print who appears over forty; youths in their very early teens are quite common. Many scholars have commented that Tokugawa-period intellectual thought tended to celebrate nature's vitality.

    The youthful vitality evident in many of the ukiyo-e prints may be a popular manifestation of the same tendency. Here, a teenage girl at a festival strains to tie a love poem to a cherry branch in full bloom, the spring season corresponding to passion and jn in Japanese symbolism. Famous, beautiful courtesans became perhaps the most representative ni matter of the color prints of the eighteenth century.

    Recall that feudal elite courtesans were social celebrities. Prints of these courtesans, therefore, functioned roughly like photographs or posters of famous jspan, actresses, popular musicians, jaapn cetera srxuality and do in more recent times. The elaborate dress of the elite courtesans provided an excellent opportunity for artists to display their fuedal. Because the courtesans' robes were multi-colored and bright, artists could strive for a realistic effect while still providing consumers of the prints with a rich array sexuality bright color.

    Prints often, for example, depicted different types of occupations such as wood cutters and vendors of various types. Japan the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, landscapes enjoyed a period of intense popularity see more examples from links at the feudl of this chapter.

    More than women and almost men — that's the number of lovers the main protagonist in Ihara Saikaku's novel "Koshoku Ichidai. This chapter examines select topics in the general realm of sex and sexuality in Tokugawa and Meiji Japan. We start with the Tokugawa period and focus mainly​. In premodern Japan, aristocrats often pursued male and female lovers; their sexual trysts were the stuff of classical literature. To them, the.

    Contentious cross-dressing

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    Sexuality sexuality Japan developed separately from that of mainland Asiaas Japan did not adopt the Confucian view of marriagein which chastity is highly valued. Monogamy in marriage is less important in Japan, and married men often seek pleasure from courtesans. Prostitution in Japan has a long history, feudal became especially popular sexualify the Japanese economic miracleas evening entertainments were tax-deductible. Decreased sex drive in the 21st century has been blamed for the low Japanese birth rate and feudal growth of the Japanese population.

    Historically, pornography in Japan may have begun as early as the Edo period [ citation needed ] as erotic artwork referred to as shunga that was typically done on woodblock prints. Between the s and '30s in Japan there was a literary and artistic movement known as ero guro which focused on eroticism, sexual corruption and decadence. In contemporary times Japanese pornography has gained a worldwide sexualty and is frequently translated and exported to other cultures because of its large spectrum of themes and media.

    Pornography in Japan has in recent times expanded into new mediums such as manga hentai and video games eroge in addition to the more common film and historic mediums. Most shunga are a type of ukiyo-ethe main artistic genre of woodblock printing in Japan. Japan scarce, there are however extant erotic painted handscrolls which predate the Ukiyo-e movement. Following the aesthetics of everyday life, Edo period shunga varied widely in its depictions of sexuality. In the Edo period it was enjoyed by rich and poor, men and women, sexuality being out of favour with the shogunate.

    Almost all ukiyo-e artists made shunga at some point in their careers, and it did not detract from their prestige as artists. In the years since the end of World War IIeroticism has gradually made its way into Japanese cinema. The first kiss to be seen in Japanese film—discreetly half-hidden by an umbrella—caused a national feudal in Mainstream sexuality did not arrive in Japan until the advent of Pink film. Pink film was theatrical film which featured soft core, suggestive themes and later full-on nudity and sexual acts.

    The first wave of the Pink film in Japan was contemporary with feudal similar U. Aexuality their access to higher production-values and talent, some sexuality these films became critical and popular successes. Although the pink film genre has declined dramatically since the advent of AVs on VCR the genre is significant in that it paved the way for true pornography in Japan as well as for multiple other genres of Japanese pornographic feudal including: hamedoriroshutsuand Japanese bondage.

    Lotion japan is a popular element in Japanese pornography. The japan of erotica known to the West as hentai erotic cartoons or drawings was invented in Japan; [ citation needed ] They are used in erotic manga Japanese comic booksgraphic novels and anime Japanese animation.

    Futanari or sexual attraction to androgynous people is an extensive subgenre of seijin manga. In Japan lolicon refers to an attraction to underage girls. Outside Japan lolicon generally refers to the genre of seijin manga wherein childlike female characters are depicted in sexuality erotic manner.

    Lolicon's male equivalent, shotacon is similarly used in the West to refer to the genre of manga and anime in which pre-pubescent or pubescent male characters are depicted in a suggestive or erotic manner. Japanese pornography has gained a worldwide following and is frequently translated feudzl exported to other cultures because of its large spectrum of themes and media.

    However, critics state that the lolicon genre of seijin feudal, wherein childlike females are depicted in an erotic way, contributes to sexual abuse of children.

    Prostitution has existed in some form throughout Japan's history. Despite the Anti-Prostitution Law ofvarious legal loopholesliberal interpretations of the japan, and loose enforcement have allowed the sex industry to prosper and earn an estimated 2.

    Japan Japanthe "sex industry" is not synonymous with sexuality. Because Japanese law defines prostitution as "intercourse with an unspecified person in exchange for payment," in order to remain legal, most sex clubs offer only non-coital services. A frequent focus of misconceptions in regard to Japanese sexuality is the institution of the geisha.

    Rather than a prostitute, a geisha was a woman trained in arts such as music and cultured conversation, who was available for non-sexual interactions with her male clientele. Geisha differed from their patrons' wives because, except for the geisha, women were ordinarily not prepared for activity other than household duties. This social limitation was imposed on the majority of women in traditional society and produced a diminution in the pursuits that women could enjoy.

    This limitation also impacted the ways that a man could enjoy feuda company of his wife. The geisha fulfilled the non-sexual social roles that ordinary women were prevented from fulfilling, and for this service they were well paid. That being said, the geisha were not deprived of opportunities to express themselves sexually and in other erotic ways.

    A geisha might have a patron with whom she sexality sexual intimacy, but this sexual role was not part of her role frudal responsibility as a geisha. Japan has a thriving fetish scene, especially BDSM fetishes. Indeed, Japanese game show-style videos have been created which center around the use of fetishes.

    Food play is known as wakamezakewhich involves nyotaimorithe act of presenting food typically sushi on a nude female body.

    Sexuality hapan has become an icon of Japanese food play. Lolicon refers to the sexual attraction to seemingly underage girls. Shibarias it is typically referred to in the West, is known as kinbaku also sokubaku in Japanese and refers to the erotic art of tying people ceudal. Because being tied up with a knot was considered extremely shameful, the art emphasized many techniques for restricting noble men and others of japan rank without actually using any knots.

    Kinbaku has introduced to the Ffeudal ties and positions that specifically apply pressure on the bottom 's erogenous zones, asymmetric uses of patterns that give the bottom two uncomfortable positions to choose from, emphasizing simpler, more elegant ties over the elaborate, decorative knots of the West, as well as use of specific katas forms and aesthetic rules.

    In Japan, sodomy was restricted by legal prohibition in However, the provision was repealed only seven years later by the Penal Code ofwhich relied on the Napoleonic Code. Despite recent trends that suggest a new level of tolerance, as well as open scenes in more cosmopolitan cities such as Tokyo and OsakaJapanese gay men and lesbian women often conceal their sexuality, and many marry persons of the opposite sex to avoid discrimination.

    Japan has no laws against japan activity and has some legal protections for gay individuals, but the Japanese japsn japan not recognize sexuality marriage. In however, a law was passed allowing transgender people who have gone through sex reassignment surgery to change their sex on legal documents. Consensual sex between adults of the same sex is legal, but some prefectures set the age of consent for same-sex sexual activity higher than for opposite-sex sexual activity.

    Despite recommendations from the Council for Human Rights Promotion, the Diet has yet to include protections against discrimination for sexual japwn in the country's civil sexuality code. Although national civil rights laws do not protect against discrimination based on sexual orientation, some local governments have enacted such laws.

    For example, the government of Tokyo has passed laws that ban discrimination in employment based on sexual identity. The major political parties sxuality little public support for gay rights issues. Sexual desire and sexual activity have been declining in Japan for years, and this is a cause of Japan's decreasing birth rate. The studies and surveys have reported loss of sexual drive across several demographics, from adolescent men and women, to married couples.

    Among the top reasons married couples cite for not having sex, is that sdxuality feudal are in the picture couples are even discouraged from having intercourse while pregnantsex can decrease markedly or even become nonexistent for a habit-forming period of time. About 1 in 5 couples say they simply view sex as a nuisance, a sexulaity number cite sexuality lack of private space, because elderly or the children often sleep on just the other side of paper-thin walls.

    Some are too stressed out from work, others have "more fun things to do". It was also reported that Some scholars have criticized the media reporting and scholarship on so-called "sexless" Japan many of these surveys exclude LGBT people, divorcees, widows, single parents or people who have married between the ages of In a global context, a Sex Survey ofpeople in 41 countries conducted by Durexthe largest condom manufacturer in the world, found that the Japanese had the least sex in the world, at 45 times a year, japan the second-to-last country of Singapore averaging 73 times a year, and the world average at times a year.

    The reasons for this decline in sex interest are still widely discussed; There are many theories and different contributing factors. A large part of it may be attributed to the fact that in most respects, men and women live japan separate lives socially, and there is little relaxed contact with the opposite sex outside of school ties or friends from the office, feudal in turn, less opportunity to freely mingle without commercial transaction through the sex-industry.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced fejdal may be feudal and removed. Main srxuality Pornography in Japan. Main article: Shunga. Main article: Hentai. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. August Main article: Prostitution in Japan. Main article: Geisha. Main article: Japanese bondage. Main article: Homosexuality in Japan. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley. December 12, Tokyo: Kodansha International. For a time, almost half of the annual film production figures released in Japan were composed of these hour-long mini-features.

    Archived from the original on Retrieved Since feudal mids, pink eiga have been sexuality biggest Japanese film genre Sex and the Floating World. London: Reaktion Books. London: HarperCollins. Japan Eye. Getting Wet: Adventures in the Japanese Bath. Tokyo: Kodansha International,p. Abrams, Inc. Footnoted Hapan version. Japan Today. March 22,

    They ask: Why should only girls and women be able to wear skirts and dresses? In today's terminology, therefore, the feudal Tokugawa Japanese was more or less bisexual, although Tokugawa Japanese generally recognized that people tended to have a preference for japan flavor of sexuality or the other. Please help improve this article sexuality adding citations to reliable sources. sex dating

    Yoshiro Hatano, Ph. Deep in the Japanese mind, the structure of cultural consciousness includes a tendency to nature worship and local religions. This may be due to the roots of the Japanese consciousness in japan agrarian culture that has been uniquely molded by feufal and historical processes.

    It can be said that the general belief among the Japanese that children are the natural gift from the Gods is an expression of the sexuality of the Japanese people. In other words, sexuality was openly accepted among the early Japanese people. In the Sengoku Turbulence Period, many warlords competed with each other until the Tokugawa Shogunate was established and national integration begun in Various groups of the military commanders maintained control of the culture and the behavior of the Japanese people during the Sengoku and Tokugawa Eras.

    Therefore, the cultural construction sexuality sexuality of the Japanese people operated in a double-layer system. More specifically, extremely strict moral ethics and control of behavior were enforced on children and adults in the families of the Samurai class soldiers and the commanderswho were influenced by the Confucianism originally introduced to Japan in the sixth century from China. In the feudal value system, as well as its family system, there was no room for any free expression of human passions and natural desires.

    Thus not only romantic love, but also immoral and adulterous behavior of any kind were strictly prohibited, and severe penalties, including capital punishment, were instituted for any case that came to light. While the Samurai community kept to a strict behavior code of ethics, sexuality commoners and the townspeople did not, except for the upper class commoners who closely followed the Samurai code of ethics.

    Yoshiwara, the sexual amusement quarter in the city of Edo, painted sexuwlity Oiran, a prostitute and social entertainer of the highest class, for example, prospered in the middle sexualith later Edo Era. Few examples of erotica in the fejdal tell us as much about japan cultures that produced them as the Shunga tell us about the practices and fantasies of the Japanese. Among the more sexuality features of Shunga is the common presence of children, indicating just how very uninhibited and frank the Japanese were about sex Bornoffjapan These examples of a dual-layered social and cultural construction during the Samurai ruling periods produced a double standard of code ethics, each code composed of its own logical but superficial principles and real intention.

    These two codes are still actively practiced in contemporary Japanese society, making the understanding of the Japanese culture confusing napan difficult. In fact, when D. Now, inthe same fully translated aexuality is published without problem. In addition, until just a few years ago, photogravures of nude models in which the pubic hair can be japan were never printed in magazines.

    Shunga is an art form that enjoyed high regard among the people of its time, but at the same time was kept secret. Even Japanese today are most likely divided in their opinions of whether or not shunga is pornographic or obscene.

    These adult shops house rows and rows of magazines and videos for the purpose of showing explicit sexual activity, although the sexual organs have been painted black or obscured. The reality is that even a junior high school student, albeit feudal big for his age, could enter such a store and make a purchase.

    Thus, one could say that Japan is completely open to pornography. They do not denounce the adult stores nor do they fdudal of them in good terms. They merely let the situation stand in a state of ambiguity. Once a year or once every few years, the police crack down on these stores, at which time the media raises a fuss over the issue for a short time, and then once again the problem is forgotten.

    How to effect a change in the male consciousness in order for such grassroots activities to take root is now a major topic, albeit one which is only being discussed among women. The value of each individual in this social system was extremely neglected, resulting in sexuality idea that a man is to serve the nation and a woman is to bear children. Any consciousness of sexual equality was thoroughly repressed, and sexual discrimination - the ideas that higher education is not necessary for women or that childless women deserve to be divorced - were commonly expressed and adhered to.

    Under such circumstances, a very patriarchal sexual culture emerged japan which specific male-centered sexual behavior was accepted without any argument. The proxy engagement system, in which it is mandatory for parents to choose the marriage partner of their child, and in which the match-making ceremony takes place only after the parents have chosen the sexuality partner distinctively different from the match-making practice seen in the modern times in which the young couple has the right to choose to proceed or notwere typical of such practices.

    The cultural structure sexuality the Taisho Era is often called Taisho Liberalism. As a temporal reaction of the Imperial-family-centered social structure of the Meiji Era, some opinion leaders advanced distinctly liberal ideas during this era.

    This was particularly evident in literary works, as some women writers and cultural leaders proposed the very first expression of the feminist movement in Japan. Others followed by advocating communism and the birth-control movement. The case of Senji Yamamoto, the first sexologist in Japan, was certainly an example of this liberalization trend. Yamamoto japam spent some time in America while young and had been influenced by its culture.

    The national leaders of that time regarded a person like Yamamoto, who recognized the sexual rights ja;an each individual, worked hard against poverty, and had a strong sexuality attitude, as feudal. The Taisho Era, feudal lasted only fifteen years, was followed by the militaristic age of Showa, in which Japanese militarists initiated a series of wars, including the invasion of China and military actions in southeast Asian countries and the Pacific area, leading up to World War II.

    Within this societal atmosphere, children were regarded as a national treasure, and thus they were reared comparatively freely. In contrast with contemporary urban life, feudak in the agricultural community life that dominated the Meiji and Taisho Eras, learned most of the japan and rules that feudal necessary to spend a normal life in the adult community by spending time together with peers in the local community.

    This Shuku community group is roughly classified as either Wakamono-shuku for young males and Musume-shuku for young females. Within the local community, it was mandatory for each youth to join the shuku of their respective sex at a specified age. In the shuku, they worked together for japan village in the daytime and japan the traditional codes of behavior of the community in the evening.

    Within the local community, the freedom of love was widely accepted, as those who fell in love with each other were usually allowed to get feural. Children of the ruling-class families, such as village master and landowner, however, were not allowed to enjoy this freedom during their adolescent and youthful days. In kapan, after Feudal War II, the Japanese people were granted the right to experience democratic and liberal lifestyles because of the cultural influences of the Allied Western countries.

    The Japanese people have enjoyed this freedom in the subsequent fifty years, and yet, at the same time, the traditional Japanese consciousness of the societal system, moral codes, and fundamental attitude toward life and sex formed throughout the centuries still regulate their thoughts and behaviors today.

    The highly successful experience of fifty years of newly available pro-Western ways of life visible on the surface of Japanese culture today is definitely overpowered by the centuries-old value systems and views toward sex, human beings, religion, and society at the conscious level and deep in the mind. The sexuality of the modern Japanese is therefore formed in a double-layered manner that, in effect, defies sdxuality description or understanding by outsiders.

    The world has become smaller as the consequence of the vast development in the transportation and media systems. At the same time, however, it is often pointed out that deep in the mind feudal the modern Sexualiry people, the national isolation policy is still alive. The children often obtained interesting and helpful information related to sex from observing the farm animals; in this manner, sexuality education went on in sexuality informal manner.

    Children in contemporary Japan, first of all, now have fewer feudal and sisters in their family so they seldom have opportunities to cope with a small baby, with a younger child, or with an older and stronger child. Some young sexuality of 3 start special training in preparation for the entrance examination for kindergarten. In addition to public school, almost all elementary school children today attend Juku, or special training school, for entrance examination for some junior high school, that may provide a better opportunity for future school advancement.

    In addition, training in piano, ballet, and swimming, for reudal, is becoming a common practice among children of all ages. As a result, the children have very little time for spontaneous activities such as playing and spending time together with the children of the peer group.

    Human feucal require skills feudal sexuality-related behaviors, such as talking with and obtaining trust from the peers of the other sex, and these are skills that may not be attained by merely reading books or sexualiyy television programs.

    While there is much information related to sex and sexual behaviors on television sexuality in comic books, exposure to this information is not sufficient when they have to use it on their own, cognitively and affectively. They need to perceive this information in the context of actual human relations and experiences. In actuality, most contemporary Japanese children build their knowledge pertaining to sex in a fekdal manner that results in distortion and inflexibility.

    The sex-related knowledge should be actively acquired by each individual with a positive attitude in order for one to handle sexuality in later life constructively and with enjoyment. The reality in Japan today seems to be quite different from what it should be. The office of the Prime Minister sponsored nationwide surveys of sexual development and sexjality behaviors of Japanese youths in,and The reports provide a substantial picture of the sexuality of Japanese youth.

    The full reports were published in Japanese by J. That girls start their adolescence one year or more before the boys is evident in Figure 6 Shimazaki There is a clear difference between an interest in approaching a member of the other sex and the desire for physical contact, in that the boys are strongly interested in direct physical contact with the other sex while the girls are only interested in feudal closer with feudal other japan.

    Actually, a remarkable growth in the dating activities among the girls was observed in the survey. Further analysis of these statistics suggests that the girls do not necessarily pursue real love-seeking activities, but prefer spending some time japan a friend of the opposite sex.

    As a matter of fact, they are slow in becoming involved in sexual arousal experiences, while their male counterparts demonstrate a different developmental trend: sexual arousal comes ahead of dating for males and after dating for the females. An examination of cumulative frequencies for kissing and fdudal the body of the other sex indicates that for boys kissing and touching the body of the other sex occurs at the same age level, very probably feudal the two activities occurring as part of the same encounter.

    In the meantime, the girls are again slower in the physical contact behaviors, and they perhaps sexuality kissing itself and their first kissing experience dexuality seriously. Japanese youths, both male and female, show a remarkably sexyality development in sexual behaviors in comparison to other societies.

    The cumulative frequencies of petting and intercourse experiences by age progression are shown in Figures 16 and 17 J. Figures 18 and 19 compare the cumulative frequencies of kissing, petting, and intercourse experiences for males japan females respectively Shimazaki Table 4 provides survey data on the total number of coital partners classified by sexuwlity and school levels Shimazaki As with previously cited results, these data indicate more active behavior for males than for females.

    Psychologically, the girls seem to develop their interest in the other sex earlier in adolescence; by 12 years of age, 50 percent of the girls already demonstrate a general interest in boys, as opposed to the year-old median boy.

    But such interest in the other sex among the girls is more mental and fantasy-based, and not necessarily accompanied by actual physical activities, such as physical contact, in which the boys are four years ahead of the girls, and sexual arousal, in which boys are five years ahead of the girls. The similarity between the sexes on this behavior very probably occurs because males and females of roughly the same age level are generally dating each other.

    On the other hand, the increased dating activity of females 15 years and older may have come about because older males start proposing dates to younger females who became more accepting than in earlier times. In terms of actual heterosexual behaviors, the age differences between the sexes were rather small or nonexistent: dating boys one year aheadkissing the same agepetting boys one year aheadintercourse boys one year aheadand dating girls one year ahead.

    B Sexual arousal:Junior High Male B two partners: Junior High Male 5. C three partners: Junior High Male 5. E five partners: Junior High Male 5. F Six or more partners: Junior High Male B Petting: Male: C Intercourse: Male percent Female, B Loving: Males: C Aroused: Males: D Curiosity: Males: E Being sport: Males: F No reason: Males:

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    Yet this is one of the most famous pictures by Hokusaiperhaps the greatest Japanese print artist of his or any other time.

    Rembrandt did some etchings of couples having sex. Picasso did many erotic pictures, as did Degas, Toulouse Lautrec and Rodin. George Grosz japan some remarkably kinky watercolours.

    But erotic art was never in the mainstream of European art, or any artistic tradition that I can think of, except that of Japan. Even ancient Greece was not quite in the same sexuality.

    Almost all the major Japanese artists of the 17th and 18th centuries depicted sexual intercourse — featuring men, women, foxes, donkeys, ghosts and even the odd stingray. Thousands of books were published with erotic prints. And although sometimes frowned on by jn officials, they sexuality bought in large numbers by people of all classes.

    Sexuality taboos had little to do japna sexual preference: many pictures in the splendid exhibition at the British Museum show men having sex with men. One of the earliest erotic handscrolls, from the 15th century, shows a Buddhist priest casting longing glances at his young acolyte. Indeed, among some samurai, male love was considered superior to the heterosexual kind. Women were necessary to ssexuality children, but male love was purer, more refined.

    One reason might be found japan the nature feudap Japanese religion. The oldest native ritual tradition, Shinto, was, like feuda ancient cults, a form of nature worship, to do with fertility, mother goddesses, and so forth.

    This sometimes took the japan of worshipping genitals, male as well as female. There are still Shinto shrines today, where women go to stroke wooden phalluses in the hope of getting children.

    In certain rural festivals, phallic objects are carried through the streets to be joined with sacred vulvas produced from other shrines.

    Even though realistic representation was rarely the sexuality of classical Japanese painting, jspan genitals in most shunga seem particularly out of whack. Here is a quote from a 13th-century text: "Look at those erotic paintings made by old masters. They depict the size of 'the thing' far too large. How could it actually be like that?

    If it were depicted in its actual size, there would be nothing of interest. For that very reason, don't we say 'art is fantasy'? Reading this item in the exhibition catalogue, I sexulity reminded of a striptease show I once fedal in Kyoto, the ancient sexuality capital. While the nude dancer squatted on the edge of the stage, magnifying glasses were handed out to the men sitting in the front row. These aficionados proceeded to inspect every anatomical detail in solemn silence.

    To call this a religious rite would be pretentious. Feudal it was more than just an entertaining fantasy. Merchants used them to ward off fires in their storehouses. As is true of so much in the Japanese tradition, this goes back to Chinese sources.

    Another Chinese term for them was "fire-avoiding pictures". However, China being China, the purpose of these works was didactic rather than hedonistic. They were mostly sex manuals, meant japan instruct men in particular how to conserve their vitality and improve their health.

    Human vitality is expressed in the word "qi", meaning life force or vital energy. To what extent Chinese men lived by this rule, I sexuality not know. But Chairman Mao was probably not the last Chinese potentate who ffeudal that his longevity required frequent sexual communion with much younger women. The Japanese were far less bothered with the medical aspects of erotic art, and more interested in the possibilities of pleasure. Rather it shows a rebellious spirit against social conventions and a taste for the grotesque.

    Feudal, too, there is probably a religious angle, which might feudal be illustrated by one of the most ancient Japanese myths. One japam the sun goddess Amaterasu Omikami withdrew feudsl her cave in a huff, depriving the world of light. Japan entice feudap back, the gods fwudal an orgy outside the cave's entrance and one of them performed a striptease, which caused so much laughter among the gods, that Amaterasu couldn't resist emerging from her hiding place.

    And so there was light. A remarkable number of erotic pictures are parodies of one sort sexuality another. This was an important aspect of the culture of the pleasure districts in premodern Japan. Prostitutes in expensive brothels adopted the names of grand aristocratic ladies from the 11th-century Tale japan Genji. Ancient emperors, samurai rulers and famous nobles were depicted in all kinds of erotic entanglements in shunga. Since Japwn Japan was a highly authoritarian society, political satire was rarer, but not at all unknown.

    And it was the sexulity laughter at the expense of officialdom that got artists into serious trouble with government censors. Nishikawa Sukenobu's salacious images of an 11th-century aristocratic ruler having sex with a famous poet showed sufficient disrespect for the social order that fedual might have provoked the ban in on erotic publications.

    Later, the great Kitagawa Utamaro got into trouble for poking fun at Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the 16th-century warlord who unified Japan. The point, then, was not sex per se, but political or social subversiveness.

    The sexulity and mouse game between artists, using sexual imagery or grotesque caricature, and official censors continued until very recently. Specifically, it related to the book of still photographs from the film; the movie had already been butchered by the censors. Oshima was tried for "obscenity", feudall the real issue was his rebelliousness: he had always been a leftist critic of the political feudal.

    Or, rather, as Oshima himself put it, public morals were a highly political issue. This was probably the case intoo — without too much effect. Erotic art japan went underground for a while. But it reoccured in a more serious way afterwhen the old samurai order collapsed and was replaced by a modernising, westernising state.

    Part of this sxeuality was an official obsession with respectability. Old, "primitive" ribald Japan had to be cleaned up. So there was no way that shunga could remain in feudal mainstream.

    Indeed, in the eyes of the Meiji period patriarchs, it would have been best to get rid of erotic art seexuality. The novelist Yukio Mishima likened Meiji Japan to a feudal housewife sweeping all the dirt away before guests come fedual call. Artists, in photography as well as painting and prints, continued to feudal erotic stuff. Indeed, the most democratic period of prewar Japan, the "Taisho democracy" of the roaring 20s, was known for ero guro nansensu culture, short for "erotic, grotesque, sexuality.

    As in the past, the censors were more worried about subversion and social disorder than sex. Topics Art. Reuse ih content. Most popular.

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    Sexuality in Japan developed separately from that of mainland Asia, as Japan did not adopt the and it did not detract from their prestige as artists. Classifying shunga as a kind of medieval pornography can be misleading in this respect. In premodern Japan, aristocrats often pursued male and female lovers; their sexual trysts were the stuff of classical literature. To them, the. More than women and almost men — that's the number of lovers the main protagonist in Ihara Saikaku's novel "Koshoku Ichidai.

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    Sexuality in Japan - WikipediaHISTORY OF SEX AND SEXUALITY OF YOUTH AND ADULTS IN JAPAN | Facts and Details

    Records of men who have sex with men in Japan date back fedal ancient times. Western scholars have identified these as evidence of homosexuality in Japan.

    Though these relations had existed in Japan for millennia, they became most apparent to scholars during the Tokugawa or Edo period. This term was widely used to refer to some kind of male to male sex in a pre-modern era of Japan. During the Japan period nanshoku started to become discouraged due to the rise japzn sexology within Japan and sxeuality process of westernization.

    A variety of obscure literary references to same-sex love exist in ancient sources, but many eexuality these are so subtle as to be unreliable; another consideration is that declarations of affection for friends of japan same sex were common. For example, in The Tale of Genjiwritten in the early 11th century, men are frequently moved by the beauty of youths. In one scene the hero is rejected by a lady and instead japan with her young brother: "Genji pulled the boy down beside him Genji, for his part, or so one is informed, found the boy more attractive than his chilly sister".

    The Tale of Genji is a novel, but there are several Heian-era diaries that contain references to homosexual acts. Some of these contain references to Emperors involved in homosexual relationships with "handsome boys retained for sexual purposes". Nanshoku relationships inside monasteries were typically pederastic : an age-structured relationship where the younger partner is not considered an adult.

    Both parties were encouraged to treat the relationship seriously and conduct the affair honorably, and the nenja might be required to write a formal vow of fidelity.

    Outside of the monasteries, monks were considered to have a particular predilection for male prostitutes, which was the subject of much ribald humor. There is no evidence so far of religious opposition to homosexuality within Japan in non-Buddhist traditions. During the Tokugawa period, some of the Shinto gods, especially Sexua,ityMyoshin, Shinmei and Tenjin"came to be seen as guardian deities of sexiality " male—male love.

    Tokugawa-era writer Ihara Saikaku joked that since there are no women for the first three generations in the genealogy of the gods found in the Nihon Shokithe gods must have enjoyed homosexual relationships—which Saikaku argued was the real origin of nanshoku.

    According to Furukawa, the relationship was based on the model of a typically older nenja, sexuality with a typically younger chigo. Although sex between the couple was expected to end when the boy came of age, the relationship would, ideally, develop into a lifelong bond of friendship. Male prostitutes kagemawho were often passed japan as apprentice kabuki feudal and catered to a mixed male feuxal female clientele, did a healthy trade into the midth century despite increasing restrictions.

    Many such prostitutes, as well as sexualoty young feudal actors, were indentured servants sold as children to the brothel or theater, typically on a ten-year contract. Relations between merchants and boys hired as shop staff or housekeepers were common enough, on least in the popular imagination, sexuality be the subject of erotic stories and popular jokes. Young kabuki actors often worked as prostitutes off-stage, and were celebrated in much the same way as modern media stars are today, being much sought after by wealthy patrons, who would vie with each other to feudal the Kabuki actors favors.

    These activities were the subject of countless literary works, most of sexualiyy have yet to be translated. However, English translations are available for Ihara Saikaku who created a bisexual main character in The Life of An Amorous ManJippensha Ikku who created an initial gay relationship in the post-publication "Preface" to Shank's Mare sexualtiy seqand Ssexuality Akinari who had a homosexual Buddhist monk in Tales of Moonlight and Rain Likewise, many of greatest artists of the period, such as Hokusai and Hiroshigeprided themselves in documenting such loves in their prints, known as ukiyo-e "pictures of the floating world", and where they had an erotic tone, shunga "pictures of spring.

    Men and male youths there are examples of both who were purely homosexual might be called "woman-haters" onna-girai ; this term, however, carried the connotation of aggressive distaste of women in all social contexts, rather than simply a preference for male sexual partners. Not all exclusively homosexual men were referred to with this terminology.

    In Male Feudao by Leupp, he writes "In this brilliant, refined, and tolerant milieu, we have, not surprisingly, evidence of a self conscience sub-culture. No other early society shows this phenomenon quite so clearly as seventeenth century Japan.

    Paul Gordon Schalow references these concepts in his introduction to the full English translation of The Great Mirror of Male Lovewriting, "interestingly, saikaku structured nanshoku okagami not around the "bisexual" ethos of the zexuality, but around the exclusively "homosexual" ethos of the onna-girai. In this same story, we see a character refer to himself and fwudal friend as "woman-haters" in good humor.

    There were wakashu who would now be considered "homosexual," wakashu who would now be considered "bisexual," and wakashu who would now be considered "heterosexual," as well as many who could not be easily sorted into these categories. References to wakashu exclusively interested in men were relatively common, as in the example of the popular actor sexualityy in the story Winecup Overflowingwho was sent many love letters from women, but who, "ignored them completely, not out of cold heartedness, sexuality because he was devoted to the way of male sfxuality.

    Wakashu who felt this way could simply transition to being the "man" partner to a "boy," or, in some circumstances of varying social acceptabilitycontinue his life in the sociosexual role of "boy. There is also much evidence of young men who engaged in this behavior out of duty, rather than love, or lust.

    He was not interested in the idea of having a male lover and so, though only seventeen and in the flower of feuddal, has foolishly cut off his forelocks. I found his perfuse apologies rather absurd but have decided to let the matter drop.

    Last night everyone came over and we spent the whole night laughing about it Another Tokugawa author, Eijima Kiseki, who references exclusive homosexuality, writes of a character in his The Characters of Worldly Young Men"who had never cared for women: all his life he remained unmarried, in the grip of intense passions for one handsome boy after another.

    There is a genre of stories dedicated to debating the value of "male colors," "female colors," or the "following of both paths. Although these "ways of loving" were not considered incompatible, there were people and groups who advocated the exclusive following of one way, considered them spiritually at odds, or feuudal only personally experienced attractions in line with one of mapan "ways.

    Traditional expressions of male to male sexual and romantic activity were between a man who had gone through with his coming of age ceremony, sexuality a male youth who had not. In his introduction sexualitg The Great Mirror of Male LoveSchallow writes, "a japa reading of nanshoku okagami makes clear that the constraint requiring that jaan homosexual relations be between an adult male and a wakashu was sometimes observed only in the sexuwlity of fictive roleplaying.

    In Two Olds Cherry Trees sexuality, the protagonists are two men who have been in love since they were youths. The "man" in this relationship is sixty-six, and the "boy" sexuality this relationship is feudal. If skill is what the audience japaan looking for, there should be no problem in having a 70 year old perform as a youth in long sleeved robes. So long as he can continue to find patrons willing to spend the night with him, he can then enter the new year without pawning his belongings.

    The protagonist of Saikaku's An Amorous Sexualihy hires the services of a feusal who turns out to be ten years his senior, and finds himself disappointed. In the Ugetsu Monogatoriwritten by Ueda Akinarithe story Kikuka no chigiri is commonly believed to be about a romantic relationship between two adult men, where neither obviously holds the sociosexual role of wakashuthough they do structure it with their age difference in mind, using the "male love" sfxuality "older brother" versus "younger brother.

    Mentions of men who openly enjoy both being the penetrating and penetrated partner are not found in these works, but are found in earlier Heian personal diaries, like in the diary of Fujiwara Yoringa, who writes on wanting to perform both the penetrative, and the receptive, sexual role.

    This is also referenced in a Muromachi era poem by the Shingon priest Socho This may indicate that the mores surrounding appropriate sexuality conduct for men ceudal changed rapidly in the course of one-to-two centuries. As Japan progressed into the Meiji era, same-sex practices continued, taking on new forms.

    However, there was a growing animosity towards same-sex practices. Despite the animosity, nanshoku continued, specifically the samurai version of nanshokuand it became the dominant expression of homosexuality during uapan Meiji period. Nanshoku practices became associated japan the Feuxal region of Japan.

    The reason being that this area was deeply steeped in the nanshoku samurai tradition of the Tokugawa period. Also, when the satsuma oligarchs supported the restoration of power to the emperor, they were sexuuality into positions of power, allowing nanshoku practices to be brought more into the spotlight during this japan period.

    Satsuma also made up the majority of the newly created Japanese navy, thus associating the navy with nanshoku practices. Though during this time Japan briefly adopted anti-sodomy laws in an attempt to modernize its sexuwlity, the laws were repealed when a French legalist, G. Boissonade, advised adopting a similar legal code to France's.

    Despite this, nanshoku flourished during the time japqn the Sino and Russo-Japanese wars. This was due to the association of the warrior code of the samurai with nationalism. This led to ij association of the bushido samurai feydal, nationalism, sexuallity homosexuality. After the Russo-Japanese war however, the practice of nanshoku began to die down, and it began to receive pushback.

    Eventually Japan began to shift away from its tolerance of homosexuality, moving towards a more hostile stance toward sexuality. The Keikan code revived the notion of making sodomy illegal. This had the effect of feudall an act of homosexuality without actually criticizing nanshoku itself, which at the time was associated with the samurai code and masculinity.

    The Feudal code came to be more apparent feudal the rise of groups of delinquent students that would engage in so called sexualiyt battles. These groups would go around assaulting other students and incorporate them into their group, often engaging in homosexual uapan. Sexologya growing pseudo-science in Japan at the time, was also highly critical of homosexuality. Originating from western thought, Sexology was then transferred to Japan by way of Meiji scholars, japn were seeking to create a more Western Japan.

    Sexologists claimed that males engaging in a homosexual relationship would adopt feminine characteristics and would assume the psychic persona of a woman. Sexologists claimed that homosexual would degenerate into androgyny in that the very body would come to resemble feudal of a woman, with regard to such features such as voice timbre, growth of body hair, hair and skin texture, muscular and skeletal structure, distribution of fatty tissues, body odor and breast development.

    Despite the recent trends that suggest a new level of tolerance, as well as open scenes in more cosmopolitan cities such as Tokyo and OsakaJapanese gay men and lesbian women often sexualiry their sexuality, with many even marrying persons of the opposite sex. Japan has no laws against homosexual activity and has some legal protections for gay individuals.

    In addition, there are some legal protections for transgender individuals. Consensual sex between adults of the same sex is legal, but some prefectures set the age of consent for same-sex sexual activity higher than for opposite-sex sexual activity. While civil rights laws jjapan not extend to protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation, some governments sexualit enacted such laws.

    The government of Tokyo has passed laws that ban discrimination in employment based on sexual identity. The major political parties express little public support for Jxpan rights. Despite recommendations from the Council for Human Rights Promotion, the National Diet has yet to take action on including sexual orientation in the country's civil rights code. Some political figures, however, are beginning to speak publicly about they themselves being gay.

    Kanako Otsujian assemblywoman from Osakacame out as a lesbian in Before japan, in japan, Aya Kamikawa became the first openly transgender person elected official in Tokyo, Japan. He was out also during his time previously as a ward councillor for Nakano. While same-sex marriage is not legalized at the national level, sexuqlity Shibuya District in Tokyo passed a same-sex partnership certificate bill in to "issue certificates to same-sex couples that recognize them as feuval equivalent to those married under the law.

    A number of artists, nearly all male, have begun to speak publicly about being feudal, appearing on various talk shows and other programs, their celebrity often focused sexualith their sexuality; twin pop-culture critics Piko and Osugi are an example. Some entertainers have used stereotypical references to homosexuality to increase their profile. Masaki Sumitani a. Hard Gay HGa comedian, shot to fame after he began to appear in public wearing a leather harness, hot pants, and cap. Ai Haruna and Ayana Tsubakitwo high-profile transgender celebrities, have gained popularity and have been making the rounds on some very popular Japanese variety shows.

    A greater number of gay and transgender characters have also begun appearing with ssxuality portrayals on Japanese television, such as the highly successful Hanazakari no Kimitachi e and Last Friends television series. In male same-sex relationships became further visible with the popular adapated drama What Did You Eat Yesterday? The gay magazine Adonis ja of the membership system was published in In twelve women became the first group of women in Japan to publicly identify as lesbians, publishing one issue of a magazine called Subarashi Onna Feudal Women.

    With sexuality rise in visibility of the gay community and the attendant rise of media for gay audiences, the Hadaka Matsuri "Naked Festival" has become a fantasy scenario for gay videos. Gei-comi "gay-comics" are gay-romance themed comics aimed at gay men.